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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

Freshwater invertebrates
Daphnia magna: 48 h LC50=0.090 mg/l

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Effect concentration:
0.09 mg/L

Additional information

1. European Union Risk Assessment Report of Acrolein (EU, 2001)

Fresh water

A considerable amount of short-term toxicity tests is available for crustaceans, molluscs and insects. The LC50-values range from 22 to 15,200 μg/l. In comparison with molluscs, crustaceans and insects seem to be more sensitive to acrolein. The lowest value is found for the larvae of Ephemerella walkeri. However, it has to be noted that this EC50-value is established in an avoidance test, which does not meet important criteria for toxicity testing. Because of this, the Ephemerella test is not taken into account for the derivation of the PNEC and will only be used as supportive information. For Daphnia magna the 48-hours LC50-values range from 22 to 93 μg/l.

Marine invertebrates

Short-time marine toxicity data are available for both crustaceans and molluscs and range from 55 to 1740 μg/l. The lowest value of 55 μg/l is found for Crassostrea virginicaand is an EC50-value for shell growth. However, this value is reported in a review without further details. For this reason the results of this test will only be used as supportive information.

Also the result of a test with the brown shrimp Penaeus aztecus (48h-LC50 = 100 µg/l) is only used as supportive information. In a test with the common shrimp Crangon crangon (96h-LC50= 340 µg/l) losses of acrolein from test solutions are reduced by omitting aeration.

2. Agreement with further international Reports and Studies published after finalisation of the EU Risk Assessment Report 2001  

WHO (2002): Invertebrates have a range of sensitivity to acrolein similar to that of fish. The water flea Daphnia magnais the most sensitive invertebrate, with a 48-h LC50 ranging from 22 to 93 μg/litre.

3. Substantial disagreements in comparison to further international Reports to European Union Risk Assessment Report 2001


4. Additional aspects in further international Reports


5. Additional information in newer Studies, not included in the European Union Risk Assessment Report 2001 or further cited international reports

The 96h-LC50-values derived in semi-static tests with the aquatic snail Heleobia parchappii and Hyalella curvispina (both adult stages) were 0.21 mg/l and 0.24 mg/l. The 24h-LC50 in a static test with the last instar larvae of the black fly Simuliumsp. was 0.6 mg/l. All effect values are based on initial measured concentrations.

Hyalella curvispina (adult stage) was also exposed to three repeated exposures to acrolein of 0.1 and 0.24 mg/L for 24 h followed by 6 d of recovery. Neither selection on amphipod individuals nor cumulative effects were observed for the repeated exposures to both concentrations of acrolein, as population survival remained unchanged with respect to controls after the third exposure.

6. Conclusions

For Daphnia magna the 48-hours LC50-values range from 22 to 93 μg/l. The EC50 of 90 µg/l is considered to be the most reliable value because a detailed study report was available for the rapporteur. For salt water invertebrates the lowest EC/LC50 values of 55 μg/l were calculated for Crassostrea (shell growth) and 100 μg/l for Penaeus aztecus. However, these values are reported in a review without further details. For this reason both results will only be used as supportive information.

No effects were observed after three repeated short-term exposures of 24h to 0.24 mg/L acrolein followed by 6d recovery phases to adult animals of the crustcean Hyalella curvispina.