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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods

Administrative data

Endpoint:
toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods
Data waiving:
study scientifically not necessary / other information available
Justification for data waiving:
other:

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2010
Report date:
2010
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Ecological Soil Screening Level for Iron. Interim Final OSWER Directive 9285,7-69. www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/eco-ssl_iron.pdf.
Author:
EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency)
Year:
2003
Bibliographic source:
Interim Final OSWER Directive 9285,7-69. www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/eco-ssl_iron.pdf.
Reference Type:
review article or handbook
Title:
Chemical aspects of soil.
Author:
Paul EA, Huang PM
Year:
1986
Bibliographic source:
In: Hutzinger O, The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry 1A The Natural Environment and the Biogeochemical Cycles. Springer, Berlin, pp.69-86.
Reference Type:
review article or handbook
Title:
Roempp Lexikon online.
Author:
Roempp
Year:
2007
Bibliographic source:
Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart.
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Evidence for the occurence of specific iron (III)-binding compounds in near-shore marine ecosystems.
Author:
Estep M, Armstrong JE, van Baalen C
Year:
1975
Bibliographic source:
Appl. Microbiol. 30, 186-188.
Reference Type:
review article or handbook
Title:
Scheffer/Schachtschabel, Lehrbuch der Bodenkunde (13th ed.).
Author:
Schachtschabel P, Blume H-P, Bruemmer G, Hartge K-H, Schwertmann U
Year:
1992
Bibliographic source:
Ferdinand Enke Verlag, Stuttgart.
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Complexation of iron(III) by natural organic ligands in the Central North Pacific as determined by a new competitive ligand equilibration/adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetric method.
Author:
Rue EL, Bruland KW
Year:
1995
Bibliographic source:
Marine Chem. 50, 117-138.
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Iron oxide dissolution and solubility in the presence of siderophores.
Author:
Kraemer SM
Year:
2004
Bibliographic source:
Aquat. Sci. 66, 3-18.
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed

Materials and methods

Results and discussion

Any other information on results incl. tables

No data are available on the effects of iron oxides on terrestrial organisms. Iron is ubiquitous in the environment. It comprises some 5 % of the earth's crust (Roempp, 2007). Iron oxides are widespread in soils (Paul and Huang, 1986). Iron occurs mostly in the form of its oxides. The predominant iron mineral in soils is goethite (alpha-FeOOH) (EPA, 2003), the most important iron ores are magnetite (Fe3O4) and hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) (Roempp, 2007).

The interstitial water of the soil is in contact with natural iron oxide minerals. Its concentrations of iron-, manganese-, and zinc ions depend on several environmental factors e.g. duration of contact, temperature, and presence of humic substances and natural complexons e.g. siderophores (Estep, Armstrong , and van Baalen, 1975; Schachtschabel et al., 1992; Rue and Bruland, 1995; Kraemer, 2004). Input of iron oxides pigments will not increase the "saturation" concentrations, and it is very unlikely that synthetic pigments have any significant effect on ion contents in soil water or on other soil properties. On the other hand, if the iron oxides would increase the soil content of iron-, manganese-, and zinc ions, this would be a fertilizing effect in line with the purpose of sewage sludge application on agricultural land.

Performing of a test is scientifically not necessary, as the category members are inert inorganic oxides of iron which resemble naturally occurring iron oxides. Even under worst case conditions an inhibitory effect of synthetic iron oxide pigments is not likely to be exerted on soil organisms.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

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