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Long-term toxicity to fish

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Link to relevant study record(s)

Reference
Endpoint:
fish early-life stage toxicity
Data waiving:
study scientifically not necessary / other information available
Justification for data waiving:
other:
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
data waiving: supporting information

Description of key information

Applying read-across to nano-sized iron (hydr)oxides (see attachment "Read-across justification-environ assessment-iron oxides" in section 13), micro-sized iron (hydr)oxides are not considered chronically toxic to fish.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

In a supporting FELS (Fish Early Life Stage) toxicity study with alpha-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (Klimisch 3) by Zhu et al. (2012) following OECD 212, effects on the mortality and hatching rate of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were not observed at the level of the OECD test limit of 10 mg/L (NOEC).

 

Further, acute toxicity of different iron(hydr)oxides, including micro- and nano-sized iron hydroxide oxide yellow, diiron trioxide, triiron tetraoxide, zinc ferrite brown spinel and manganese ferrite black spinel to fish (Danio rerio) was not observed up to 100 g/L, a concentration that is 1000-fold above the corresponding OECD test limit for acute toxicity.

 

Table: Chronic aquatic toxicity of iron (hydr)oxides to fish.

Endpoint

Test species

Test results

Test material/form

Reliability: Reference

Long-term toxicity to fish

Danio rerio

NOEC (168 h): 10 mg/L nominal

diiron trioxide / nano, alpha

RL3: Zhu et al., 2012