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Administrative data

Workers - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
1.058 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
25
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
30 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
Value:
26.45 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

Regarding absorption, in the absence of reliable data for both the starting route (oral) and the end route (inhalation), worst-case assumptions were made. It was assumed that  limited absorption occurs by the oral route, leading to a low (conservative) internal NOAEL. To secure a conservative external NOAEL,  maximum absorption should be assumed for the inhalation route (i.e.; 100%) leading to a low external NOAEL. Thus, in the case of oral-to-inhalation extrapolation, it is proposed to include a default factor of 2, i.e. the absorption percentage by the oral route is half that of the inhalation absorption as suggested in ECHA Guidance on Information Requirements and Chemical Safety Assessment, Chapter R.8 (2012).

To convert the oral NOAEL into an inhalatory NOAEC, a rat default respiratory volume was used corresponding to the daily duration of human exposure (sRVrat: 0.38 m3/kg bw/8 h). For workers a correction was added for the difference between respiratory rates under standard conditions (sRVhuman: 6.7 m3 for an 8 h exposure period) and under conditions of light activity (wRV: 10 m3 for an 8 h exposure period).

The corrected dose descriptor for inhalation is determined using the following equation:

Corrected Inhalatory NOAEC = [NOAEL] X (1/SRVrat x ABS(oral-rat)/ABS(inh-human) x sRVhuman/wRV

= [30 mg/kg bw/day] X  [1/0.38 m3/kg bw/day] X [1/2] X [6.7 m3/10m3].

Therefore, the corrected dose descriptor for inhalation is 26.45 mg/m3 for workers.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose-descriptor is a NOAEL. Table R.8-6 ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
2
Justification:
Default factor for chronic study. Table R.8-5 ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
Table R.8-4 ECHA REACH Guidance. An assessment factor is not to be used for the inhalation route since the differences in the metabolic rate/bw have already been taken into account in the corrected dose descriptor.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
Default factor for other interspecies differences. Table R.8-6 ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
Default factor for worker. Table R.8-6 ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
Default factor for good/standard quality of the database taken into account completeness of the standard information requirements for the tonnage band
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
No remaining uncertainties
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
high hazard (no threshold derived)
Most sensitive endpoint:
skin irritation/corrosion
Route of original study:
Dermal
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
high hazard (no threshold derived)
Most sensitive endpoint:
skin irritation/corrosion
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
high hazard (no threshold derived)
Most sensitive endpoint:
skin irritation/corrosion
DNEL related information

Workers - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.3 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Dermal
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
100
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
30 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
30 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

For systemic hazard assessment via the dermal route of exposure, route-to-route extrapolation from the oral NOAEL value was considered appropriate. As no data on dermal penetration are available, dermal absorption is considered to be the same as oral absorption (i.e. 100 %). Therefore the oral NOAEL is considered the same as the dermal NOAEL (ECHA Guidance on Information Requirements and Chemical Safety Assessment, Chapter R.8 (2012)).

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose-descriptor is a NOAEL. Table R.8-6 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
2
Justification:
Default factor for chronic study. Table R.8-5 ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
Default allometric scaling factor for rats. Table R.8-4 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
Default factor for other interspecies differences. Table R.8-6 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
Default factor for worker. Table R.8-6 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
Default factor for good/standard quality of the database taken into account completeness of the standard information requirements for the tonnage band.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
No remaining uncertainities.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
high hazard (no threshold derived)
Most sensitive endpoint:
skin irritation/corrosion
Route of original study:
Dermal
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
high hazard (no threshold derived)
Most sensitive endpoint:
sensitisation (skin)
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
high hazard (no threshold derived)
Most sensitive endpoint:
skin irritation/corrosion

Workers - Hazard for the eyes

Local effects

Hazard assessment conclusion:
high hazard (no threshold derived)

Additional information - workers

Oral to Inhalation Dose Descriptor Correction - NOAEC Long-term Systemic


Route-to-route extrapolation of the extended one generation reproductive toxicity study NOAEL via the oral route, to the inhalation route, was conducted in accordance with ECHA Guidance on Information Requirements and Chemical Safety Assessment, Chapter R.8. This NOAEL of 30 mg/kg bw/day observed in a 28 -day oral toxicity study (OECD 422) aw ell as the extended one generation reproductive toxicity study (OECD 443) in rats.  Default assessment factor for  chronic study according to  ECHA REACH Guidance - table R.8-5 was used based on exposure condition under OECD 443.  The main driving toxicity effects were lesions in the glandular stomach at 30 and 100 mg/kg/day in F0 animals, and at 100 mg/kg in F1 animals with histopathological effect only observed at 100 mg/kg bw/day. There were no effects observed on development or reproduction. The lesions were attributed to the corrosive nature of the substance.


 


Inhalatory NOAEClong-term= Systemic NOAELlong-termx (1/sRVrat) x ABSoral-rat/ABSinh-human) x (sRVhuman/wRV).


 









































 Symbol Parameter Value/Reference
 Input      
 Systemic NOAELlong-term Oral system NOAEL from OECD443 in rats 30 mg/kg bw/day
 sRVrat standard Respiratory Volume - rat 0.38 m3/kg/day
 sRVhuman standard Respiratory Volume - human 6.7 m3
 wRV worker Respiratory Volume 10 m3
Output
 Inhalatory NOAEClong-term Inhalatory NOAEClong-termestimate 26.45 mg/m3

General Population - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.261 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
50
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
30 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
Value:
13.043 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

Concerning absorption, in the absence of reliable data for both the starting route (oral) and the end route (inhalation), worst case assumptions were made. It was assumed that a limited absorption occurs by the oral route, leading to a low (conservative) internal NOAEL. To secure a conservative external NOAEL, a maximum absorption should be assumed for the inhalation route (i.e.; 100%) leading to a low external NOAEL. Thus, in the case of oral-to- inhalation extrapolation, it is proposed to include a default factor of 2, i.e. the absorption percentage by oral route is half that of the inhalation absorption as suggested in ECHA Guidance on Information Requirements and Chemical Safety Assessment, Chapter R.8 (2012).

To convert the oral NOAEL into inhalatory NOAEC, a rat default respiratory volume was used corresponding to the daily duration of human exposure (sRVrat: 1.15 m3/kg bw/24 h).

The corrected dose descriptor for inhalation is determined using the following equation:

Corrected Inhalator NOAEC = 1/sRVrat x ABSoral-rat/ABSinh-rat x ABSinh-rat/ABSinh-human

= [NOAEL] x [30 mg/kg bw/day] x [1/1.15 m3/kg bw/ day] x [1/2].

Thus, the corrected dose descriptor for inhalation is 13.043 mg/m3 for the general population.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose-descriptor is a NOAEL. Table R.8-6 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
2
Justification:
Default factor for a chronic. Table R.8-5 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
Table R.8-4 ECHA REACH Guidance. Assessment factor not to be used for inhalation route since the differences in metabolic rate/bw has already been taken into account for the corrected dose descriptor.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
efault factor for other interspecies differences. Table R.8-6 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
Default factor for general population. Table R.8-6 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
Default factor for good/standard quality of the database taken into account completeness of the standard information requirements for the tonnage band.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
No remaining uncertainties
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

General Population - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.15 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
200
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
30 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
30 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

No modification of the dose descriptor starting point is required. The endpoint used to derive the DNEL uses the oral route for exposure

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose-descriptor is a NOAEL. Table R.8-6 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
2
Justification:
Default factor for a chronic. Table R.8-5 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
Default allometric scaling factor for rats. Table R.8-4 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
Default factor for other interspecies differences. Table R.8-6 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
Default factor for general population. Table R.8-6 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
Default factor for good/standard quality of the database taken into account completeness of the standard information requirements for the tonnage band.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
No remaining uncertainties
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

General Population - Hazard via oral route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.15 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
200
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
30 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
30 mg/kg bw/day
AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose-descriptor is a NOAEL. Table R.8-6 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
2
Justification:
Default factor for a chronic study. Table R.8-5 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
Default allometric scaling factor for rats. Table R.8-4 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
Default factor for other interspecies differences. Table R.8-6 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
Default factor for general population. Table R.8-6 ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
Default factor for good/standard quality of the database taken into account completeness of the standard information requirements for the tonnage band.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
No remaining uncertainties
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

General Population - Hazard for the eyes

Local effects

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Additional information - General Population