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Toxicological information

Eye irritation

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
eye irritation: in vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1978
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
The study was performed according to a method similar to OECD 405 and pre-GLP. The study did not last for 21 days to study reversibility but this would also not be acceptable nowadays for animal welfare reasons. Therefore the study is given validity 4 otherwise it can be a validity 2.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
1978
Report date:
1978

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 405 (Acute Eye Irritation / Corrosion)
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: U.S. FDA (Fed. Reg. 28(119), 5582, 1963)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The study did not last for 21 days to study reversibility but this would also not be acceptable nowadays for animal welfare reasons.
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
pre-GLP

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Tosyl chloride
EC Number:
202-684-8
EC Name:
Tosyl chloride
Cas Number:
98-59-9
Molecular formula:
C7H7ClO2S
IUPAC Name:
4-methylbenzenesulfonyl chloride
Details on test material:
Name: para toluenesulfochloride
Appearance: a white solid
Date received: 15 March 1978

No further data

Test animals / tissue source

Species:
rabbit
Strain:
New Zealand White
Details on test animals or tissues and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: no data
- Age at study initiation: no data
- Weight at study initiation: no data
- Housing: no data
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): no data
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): no data
- Acclimation period: no data

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): no data
- Humidity (%): no data
- Air changes (per hr): no data
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): no data

IN-LIFE DATES: no data

Test system

Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Controls:
other: untreated eye served as the control
Amount / concentration applied:
0.1g
Duration of treatment / exposure:
One single dose is given
Observation period (in vivo):
The eyes are examined at 24, 48, 72 hours and 7 days after instillation of the test material.
Number of animals or in vitro replicates:
1, due to the severity of the effects
Details on study design:
REMOVAL OF TEST SUBSTANCE
- Washing (if done): not done
- Time after start of exposure: not applicable

SCORING SYSTEM: Scoring system eye irritation

Cornea: degree of density (area most dense taken for reading)
0 No ulceration or opacity
1 Scattered or diffuse areas of opacity (other than slight dulling of normal lustre), details of iris clearly visible
2 Easily discernible translucent areas, details of iris slightly obscured
3 Nacrous areas, no details of iris visible, size of pupil barely discernible
4 Opaque cornea, iris not discernible through the opacity

Iris
0 Normal
1 Markedly deepened rugae, congestion, swelling, moderate circumcorneal hyperaemia or injection, any of these or combination of any thereof, iris still reacting to light (sluggish reaction is positive)
2 No reaction to light, haemorrhage, gross destruction (any or all of these)

Conjunctivae
Redness (refers to palpebral and bulbar conjunctivae cornea and iris)

0 Blood vessels normal
1 Some blood vessels definitely hyperaemic
(injected)
2 Diffuse, crimson colour, individual vessels not easily discernible
3 Diffuse, beefy red

Chemosis (lids and/or nictitating membranes)
0 No swelling 0
1 Any swelling above normal (includes nictitating membranes)
2 Obvious swelling with partial eversion of lids
3 Swelling with lids about half-closed
4 Swelling with lids more than half-closed

TOOL USED TO ASSESS SCORE: Ocular reactions are read using a binocular magnifying glass. The diagnosis of corneal damage is confirmed, if necessary, by staining the eyes of the animals with fluorescein-impregnated papers. After flushing the excess fluorescein solution, the eyes are examined in a dark room under ultraviolet illumination.

Results and discussion

In vivo

Resultsopen allclose all
Irritation parameter:
cornea opacity score
Basis:
animal #1
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
3
Max. score:
4
Reversibility:
not reversible
Remarks on result:
other: At the observation after 7 days the degree of the effects has increased.
Irritation parameter:
iris score
Basis:
animal #1
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
1
Max. score:
2
Reversibility:
not reversible
Remarks on result:
other: At the observation after 7 days the degree of the effects has increased.
Irritation parameter:
conjunctivae score
Basis:
animal #1
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Max. score:
3
Reversibility:
not reversible
Remarks on result:
other: Could not be scored, conjunctivae ischemic or necrotic.
Irritation parameter:
chemosis score
Basis:
animal #1
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
2.33
Max. score:
4
Reversibility:
not fully reversible within: 7 days
Irritant / corrosive response data:
Moderate to complete corneal opacity, slight iritis, ischemia and necrosis of the conjunctivae and swelling with lids about half closed.

Any other information on results incl. tables

results:

Rabbit No and sex

Region of the eye

Hours after instillation

Average 24-48-72 hours

24

48

72

7(days)

19

Cornea

Degree of opacity

3

3

3

4

3

Iris

1

1

1

?

1

Conjunctivae

Redness

-

-

-

-

Chemosis

3

2

2

2

2.33

? iris not discernible

- conjunctivae ischemic or necrotic

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
Category 1 (irreversible effects on the eye) based on GHS criteria
Remarks:
Migrated information
Conclusions:
Ischemia and necrosis of the conjunctivae were observed. Other effects increased in severity over a 7 day period. The study did not last for 21 days but this would also not be acceptable nowadays for animal welfare reasons. Therefore the test substance is considered to cause irreversible effects on the eye according to GHS.
Executive summary:

A study was performed to access the eye irritancy of para toluenesulfochloride. The study was performed pre-GLP. The study is similar to OECD405. 0.1g of the test substance was instilled in the eye of one rabbit. The untreated eye served as the control. Observations were made after 24, 48, 72 hours and after 7 days. The test substance caused very severe ocular lesions: moderate to complete corneal opacity, slight iritis, ischemia and necrosis of the conjunctivae and swelling with lids about half closed which were increased at the 7 day observation. Therefore the test substance is considered to cause irreversible effects on the eye according to GHS.

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