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Please be aware that this old REACH registration data factsheet is no longer maintained; it remains frozen as of 19th May 2023.

The new ECHA CHEM database has been released by ECHA, and it now contains all REACH registration data. There are more details on the transition of ECHA's published data to ECHA CHEM here.

Diss Factsheets

Toxicological information

Direct observations: clinical cases, poisoning incidents and other

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Administrative data

direct observations: clinical cases, poisoning incidents and other
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
other information
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well-documented publication which meets basic scientific principles

Data source

Reference Type:

Materials and methods

Study type:
study with volunteers
Endpoint addressed:
repeated dose toxicity: oral
Test guideline
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
22 male police officers exposed to white lead were invited to participate in the investigation: a questionnaire about previous symptoms and diseases, previous occupational status, possible previous and present lead exposure was sent to them and a physical examination was made (blood pressure, estimation of lung function, blood lead concentration)
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Trilead bis(carbonate) dihydroxide
EC Number:
EC Name:
Trilead bis(carbonate) dihydroxide
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
tris(λ²-lead(2+)) dihydroxide dicarbonate
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): white lead
- Substance type: powder
- Physical state: solid


Type of population:
- Number of subjects exposed: 22
- Sex: male
- Age: mean 36 (range 27-68)
- Demographic information: Bureau of Dactylographic Identification in Copenhagen
- Known diseases: none
Ethical approval:
not specified
Route of exposure:
Reason of exposure:
unintentional, occupational
Exposure assessment:
Details on exposure:
By handling dusts of white lead, the police officers accidentally ingest it
The exposure time varies in a range of 5-30 h/week
- Haematology: blood pressure, blood lead concentration
- Lung function parameters: yes

Results and discussion

Clinical signs:
1 case of mild lead intoxication: stomach pain, obstipation, ill health
Results of examinations:
- Haematology: median blood lead concentration: 0.97 µmol/l (2.75 µmol/l for the case of mild intoxication)

Any other information on results incl. tables

A statistically significant correlation (r = 0.87; p < 0.0001) was found between the blood lead concentrations of the 22 male police officers and the white lead exposure time

Additional data from literature shows that the blood levels encountered in other adult male populations (farmers, workers employed in industry, ...) are around 0.62 -0.68 µmol/l

Applicant's summary and conclusion

The use of white lead among dactylographs can be risky; the study shows that this special kind of lead exposure is relevant.