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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods

Administrative data

Endpoint:
toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study is performed according to OECD guidelines with some deviations Comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Is the OECD acute worm toxicity test environmentally relevant? The effect of mineral form on calculated lead toxicity
Author:
Nicola A. Davies, Mark E. Hodson, Stuart Black
Year:
2002
Bibliographic source:
Environmental Pollution 121, 49-54

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 222 (Earthworm Reproduction Test (Eisenia fetida/Eisenia andrei))
Deviations:
yes
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The toxicity of lead to worms in soil was determined following the draft OECD earthworm reproduction toxicity protocol except that lead was added as solid lead nitrate, carbonate and sulphide rather than as lead nitrate solution as would normally be the case.
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): lead carbonate
- Molecular formula (if other than submission substance): PbCO3
- Physical state: fine powder
- Analytical purity: >99%

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
not specified

Test substrate

Vehicle:
not specified
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
- Method of mixing into soil (if used): 40°C overnight

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Eisenia fetida
Animal group:
annelids
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Tiger Worm
- Source: Blades Biological (Cowden, Edenbridge, Kent, UK)
- Age at test initiation (mean and range, SD): 3 months old
- Weight at test initiation (mean and range, SD): 290-470 mg

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 1 wk
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): metal free test soil

Study design

Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
artificial soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
28 d

Test conditions

Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Amount of soil or substrate: 500 g dry soil
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 10
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 4
- No. of replicates per control: 8

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: Turf Management Systems, Iver Heath, Buckinghamshire, UK
- Sampling depth (cm): <2mm
- Composition (if artificial substrate):
- Organic carbon (%): 2.8
- Maximum water holding capacity (in % dry weigth): 48
- CEC: 17.6 Meq 100 g-1
- Pretreatment of soil: sterilised


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : mortality after each 7-day period
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: 625, 1200, 3125,, 5000, 6250, 8000 and 12500 µg Pb/g soil

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 12 500 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: calculated using Trimmed Spearman-Karber stat
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
> 12 500 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: calculated by ANOVA
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 12 500 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: weight change
Remarks on result:
other: calculated using the Linear Interpolation Method
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
> 12 500 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: weight change
Remarks on result:
other: calculated using the Linear Interpolation Method
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
8 604 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: cocoon production
Remarks on result:
other: calculated using the Linear Interpolation Method
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
8 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: cocoon production
Remarks on result:
other: calculated using the Linear Interpolation Method

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
In the conditions of the study, lead carbonate was found non toxic due for the most part to its low bioavailability.