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Toxicological information

Skin irritation / corrosion

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
skin irritation: in vitro / ex vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
6 June 2012 - 11 June 2012
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2013
Report Date:
2013

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 439 (In Vitro Skin Irritation: Reconstructed Human Epidermis Test Method)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method B.46 (In Vitro Skin Irritation: Reconstructed Human Epidermis Model Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
liquid

In vitro test system

Test system:
human skin model
Source species:
human
Cell type:
non-transformed keratinocytes
Justification for test system used:
Recommended in international guidelines
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on test system:
RECONSTRUCTED HUMAN EPIDERMIS (RHE) TISSUE
- Model used: EPISKIN™ Reconstructed Human Epidermis Model Kit, supplied by SkinEthic Laboratories, Lyon, France.
- Delivery date: 5 June 2012

TEMPERATURE USED FOR TEST SYSTEM
- Temperature used during treatment / exposure: Room temperature
- Temperature of post-treatment incubation: 37°C

TEST FOR DIRECT MTT REDUCTION
A test material may interfere with the MTT endpoint, if it is able to directly reduce MTT and at the same time is present on or in the tissues when the MTT viability test is performed. To identify this possible interference, the test material is checked for the ability to directly reduce MTT according to the following procedure: 10 µL of the test material was added to 2 mL of a 0.3 mg/mL MTT solution freshly prepared in assay medium. The solution was incubated in the dark at 37°C, 5% CO2 in air for 3 hours. Untreated MTT solution was used as a control. If the MTT solution containing the test material turns blue or purple, the test material is presumed to have reduced the MTT and the determination of skin irritation potential would be performed in parallel on viable and water killed tissues for quantitative correction of the results.


MAIN TEST

PRE-INCUBATION: DAY 0
2 mL of maintenance medium, warmed to approximately 37°C, was pipetted into the first column of 3 wells of a pre labelled 12 well plate. Each epidermis unit was transferred into the maintenance medium filled wells (3 units per plate). A different 12-well plate was used for the test material and each control material. The tissues were incubated at 37°C, 5 % CO2 in air overnight.

APPLICATION OF TEST MATERIAL: DAY 1
2 mL of maintenance medium, warmed to approximately 37°C, was pipetted into the second column of 3 wells of the 12 well plate. Triplicate tissues were treated with the test material for an exposure period of 15 minutes. The test material was applied topically to the corresponding tissues ensuring uniform covering. 10 µL of the test material was then applied to the epidermal surface. Triplicate tissues treated with 10 µL of DPBS served as the negative controls and triplicate tissues treated with 10 µL of SDS 5% w/v served as the positive controls. To ensure satisfactory contact with the positive control material the SDS solution was spread over the entire surface of the epidermis using a pipette tip (taking particular care to cover the center). After a 7 minute contact time the SDS solution was re spread with a pipette tip to maintain the distribution of the SDS for the remainder of the contact period (re-spreading is not required for the negative control or test material). The plates were kept in the biological safety cabinet at room temperature for 15 minutes.

REMOVAL OF TEST MATERIAL AND CONTROLS
At the end of the exposure period, each tissue was removed from the well using forceps and rinsed using a wash bottle containing DPBS with Ca²+ and Mg²+. Rinsing was achieved by filling and emptying each tissue insert for approximately 40 seconds using a constant soft stream of DPBS to gently remove any residual test material. The rinsed tissues were transferred to the second column of 3 wells containing 2 mL of maintenance medium in each well. The rinsed tissues were incubated at 37°C, 5% CO2 in air for 42 hours.

MTT LOADING/ FORMAZAN EXTRACTION: DAY 3
Following the 42 hour post-exposure incubation period each 12-well plate was placed onto a plate shaker for 15 minutes to homogenise the released mediators in the maintenance medium. 1.6 mL of the maintenance medium from beneath each tissue was transferred to pre labelled micro tubes and stored in a freezer at 14 to 30°C for possible inflammatory mediator determination.
2 mL of a 0.3 mg/mL MTT solution, freshly prepared in assay medium, was pipetted into the third column of 3 wells of the 12-well plates. The tissues were transferred to the MTT filled wells, being careful to remove any excess maintenance medium from the bottom of the tissue insert by blotting on absorbent paper. The tissues were incubated for 3 hours at 37°C, 5% CO2 in air. At the end of the 3 hour incubation period each tissue was placed onto absorbent paper to dry. A total biopsy of the epidermis was made using the EPISKIN™ biopsy punch. The epidermis was carefully separated from the collagen matrix using forceps and both parts (epidermis and collagen matrix) placed into labelled 1.5 mL micro tubes containing 500 µL of acidified isopropanol, ensuring that both the epidermis and collagen matrix were fully immersed. Each tube was plugged to prevent evaporation and mixed thoroughly on a vortex mixer. The tubes were refrigerated at 1 to 10°C until day 6 of the experiment, allowing the extraction of formazan crystals out of the MTT-loaded tissues.

ABSORBANCE/ OPTICAL DENSITY MEASUREMENTS: DAY 6
At the end of the formazan extraction period each tube was mixed thoroughly on a vortex mixer to produce a homogenous coloured solution. For each tissue, duplicate 200 µL samples were transferred to the appropriate wells of a pre labelled 96 well plate. 200 µL of acidified isopropanol alone was added to the two wells designated as ‘blanks’. The optical density was measured (quantitative viability analysis) at 540 nm (without a reference filter) using the Anthos 2001 microplate reader.

NUMBER OF REPLICATE TISSUES: 3

DATA EVALUATION
Quantitative MTT Assessment (Percentage Tissue Viability)
For the test material the relative mean tissue viabilities obtained after the 15 minute exposure period followed by the 42 hour post exposure incubation period were compared to the mean of the negative control treated tissues (n=3). The relative mean viabilities were calculated in the following way:
Relative mean viability (%) = (mean OD562 of test material / mean OD562 of negative control) x100
Classification criteria for in vitro interpretation:
Relative mean tissue viability is ≤ 50%: Irritant,
Relative mean tissue viability is > 50%: Non-irritant.

QUALITY CRITERIA
- The assay establishes the acceptance criterion for an acceptable test if the relative mean tissue viability for the positive control treated tissues is ≤ 40% relative to the negative control treated tissues, and the standard deviation (SD) value of the percentage viability is ≤ 18 %.
- The assay establishes the acceptance criterion for an acceptable test if the mean OD562 for the negative control treated tissues is ≥ 0.6 and ≤ 1.5, and the SD value of the percentage viability is ≤ 18%.
- The assay establishes the acceptance criterion for an acceptable test if the standard deviation calculated from individual percentage tissue viabilities of the three identically treated tissues is ≤ 18%.
Control samples:
yes, concurrent negative control
yes, concurrent positive control
Amount/concentration applied:
TEST MATERIAL
- Amount applied: 10 µL

NEGATIVE CONTROL
- Amount(s) applied: 10 µL

POSITIVE CONTROL
- Amount applied: 10 µL
- Concentration: 5 % w/v
Duration of treatment / exposure:
15 minutes
Duration of post-treatment incubation (if applicable):
42 hours
Number of replicates:
3

Results and discussion

In vitro

Results
Irritation / corrosion parameter:
% tissue viability
Run / experiment:
mean
Value:
4.7
Vehicle controls validity:
not applicable
Negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid

Any other information on results incl. tables

Table 1 Mean OD540 Value and Percentage Viabilities for the Negative Control Item, Positive Control Item and the Test Item

Item

OD540 of Tissues

Mean OD540 of Triplicate Tissues

± SD of OD540

Relative Individual Tissue Viability (%)

Relative Mean Viability (%)

± SD of mean Relative Viability (%)

Negative Control

0.846

 

0.791

 

0.056

107.0

 

100*

 

7.1

0.793

100.3

0.734

92.8

Positive Control

0.043

 

0.036

 

0.006

5.4

 

4.5

 

0.8

0.031

3.9

0.034

4.3

Test Material

0.041

 

0.037

 

0.004

5.2

 

4.7

 

0.5

0.033

4.2

0.036

4.6

SD = Standard Deviation

* The mean viability of the negative control tissues is set at 100 %

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
Category 2 (irritant) based on GHS criteria
Conclusions:
Under the conditions of the study the test material requires classification as a skin irritant (category 2) in accordance with EU criteria.
Executive summary:

The skin irritation potential of the test material was determined in accordance with the standardised guidelines OECD 439 and EU Method B.46. under GLP conditions using a human skin model.

The purpose of this test was to evaluate the skin irritation potential of the test material using the EPISKINreconstructed human epidermis model after a treatment period of 15 minutes followed by a postexposure incubation period of 42 hours. 

During the study, triplicate tissues were treated with the test material for an exposure period of 15 minutes. At the end of the exposure period each tissue was rinsed before incubating for 42 hours. The test material was found to have the potential to cause colour interference with the MTT endpoint therefore additional tissues were incorporated into the testing to correct for this. At the end of the postexposure incubation period each tissue was taken for MTT-loading. The maintenance medium from beneath each tissue was transferred to prelabelled micro tubes and stored in a freezer for possible inflammatory mediator determination. After MTT-loading a total biopsy of each epidermis was made and placed into micro tubes containing acidified isopropanol for extraction of formazan crystals out of the MTTloaded tissues. At the end of the formazan extraction period each tube was mixed thoroughly and duplicate 200 µL samples were transferred to the appropriate wells of a prelabelled 96well plate. The optical density was measured at 540 nm.

The relative mean viability of the test material treated tissues was 4.7% after the 15‑minute exposure period and 42‑hours postexposure incubation period. The quality criteria required for acceptance of results in the test were satisfied.

Under the conditions of the study the test material requires classification as a skin irritant (category 2) in accordance with EU criteria.