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Environmental fate & pathways

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

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Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species: fish
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
1982
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Not standard procedure, but well described study and protocol.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
bioconcentration of vanadium from water to fish over one reproduction cycle, during 96 days
GLP compliance:
no
Radiolabelling:
no
Details on sampling:
samples after 28, 70 and 96 days, oven dried at 105°C for 24h and stored in airtight bags
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Jordanella floridae
Details on test organisms:
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): one week old
no other details
Route of exposure:
aqueous
Test type:
flow-through
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: freshwater
Total exposure / uptake duration:
96 d
Hardness:
347 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
25.4°C
pH:
8.15
Dissolved oxygen:
7.4 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
1 week old larvae exposed up to 96 days + second generation fish exposed up to an age of 30 days.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 0.041, 0.17, 0.48, 1.5 mg V/L (highest concentration is 1/8 of LC50, lowest concentration is equal to NOEC 0.08 mg/L).
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Details on estimation of bioconcentration:
all residues were expressed in terms of dry body weight. The conversion factor for a wet weight was 0.24 .
Type:
BCF
Value:
27.9 dimensionless
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Time of plateau:
70 d
Calculation basis:
steady state
Remarks on result:
other: Conc.in environment / dose:0.041 mg/L
Type:
BCF
Value:
24.5 dimensionless
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Time of plateau:
70 d
Calculation basis:
steady state
Remarks on result:
other: Conc.in environment / dose:0.17 mg/L
Type:
BCF
Value:
11.6 dimensionless
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Time of plateau:
70 d
Calculation basis:
steady state
Remarks on result:
other: Conc.in environment / dose:0.48 mg/L
Details on results:
Concentrations in organisms were 0.54, 4.79, 17.5, 22.9 and 28.7 mg V/kg dw at exposure concentrations of control (2), 41, 170, 480 and 1500 µg V/L, respectively.

Residues of vanadium in first and second generations at 28/ 30 days were not different at any concentrations. The 1.5 mg/L concentration was high enough to cause some mortality. Residues and bioconcentrations increased with duration of exposure up to 70 days. Higher concentrations of vanadium in the water resulted in higher residues but lower concentrations factors.
Reported statistics:
analyses of variance (concentration, exposure time and sex), followed by Fisher's significant difference test (P=0.05)
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Executive summary:

In a non standard protocol, divanadium pentoxide bioconcentration was tested with American flagfish over one reproduction cycle, during 96 days. The concentrations applied were 0, 0.041, 0.17, 0.48, 1.5 mg V/L.

Residues of vanadium in first and second generations at 28/ 30 days were not different at any concentrations. The 1.5 mg/L concentration was high enough to cause some mortality. Residues and bioconcentrations increased with duration of exposure up to 70 days. Higher concentrations of vanadium in the water resulted in higher residues but lower concentrations factors.

BCF varied from 27.9 to 11.6 for 0.041 mg/L to 0.48 mg/L concentrations of vanadium in water. BCF of vanadium is thus at the low end of the range for metals, and the bioaccumulation danger from vanadium thus appears to be low.

Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species: fish
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP test, carried out according to OECD 305 guideline, without any deviation, by the Japanese Chemical Evaluation and Research Institute, under Japan Existing chemicals survey program in CSCL. (Study quoted with reliability 2 due to the read across)
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 305 (Bioconcentration: Flow-through Fish Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Radiolabelling:
no
Details on sampling:
- Sampling intervals/frequency for test organisms: exposure days 7, 14, 19, 22 and 28,
- Sampling intervals/frequency for test medium samples: exposure days 6, 7, 14, 19, 22 and 28,
- Details on sampling and analysis of test organisms and test media samples:
"Fish samples": -> measurement of body weight and length -> chopping -> finely ->
"fine samples": -> sampling 0.5 g -> nitric acid 2 mL -> heating -> cooling -> dilution 50 mL (water) -> sample for AA (atomic absorption spectrophotometry),
"Water samples": sampling 1 mL (high-concentration), 10 mL (low-concentration) -> dilution 10 mL (test water) (high-concentration) -> sample for AA (atomic absorption spectrophotometry)
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation of test solutions, spiked fish food or sediment:
- Method: test material was dissolved in sodium hydrochloride and adjusted to pH 7 by hydrochloric acid, and then diluted with ion exchanged water
Test organisms (species):
Cyprinus carpio
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: carp,
- Source: Sugishima Fisheries,
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): under a year old,
- Length at study initiation (lenght definition, mean, range and SD): 7.0 - 8.8 cm,
- Feeding during test - Food type: formuals feed for juvenile carp,
- Amount: ca. 2% of body weight/ day,
- Frequency: 2 times/day, but no feeding was permitted within 24 h of fish sampling.,

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Following acclimation, test fishes were transferred to acclimation tank and acclimated after medicated bath. They were cultured in ground water for 34 days under a flow-through condition at 25±2degreeC. Further, they were transferred to test tank and cultured in dechlorinated tap water with charcoal for 26 days under a flow-through condition at the same temperature after medicated bath.,
Route of exposure:
aqueous
Test type:
flow-through
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: freshwater
Total exposure / uptake duration:
28 d
Test temperature:
High-concentration: 24.3 - 25.2 °C,
Low-concentration: 24.1 - 25.0 °C,
Control: 24.1 - 25.2 °C
pH:
High-concentration: 7.8 - 7.9,
Low-concentration: 7.8 - 7.9,
Control: 7.8 - 7.9
Dissolved oxygen:
High-concentration: 8.1 mg/L,
Low-concentration: 8.1 mg/L,
Control: 8.1 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 100 L glass aquaria,
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): 576 L/day,
- No. of organisms per vessel: High- and Low concentration - 28, Control - 12,
- Biomass loading rate: not available

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: tap water in Kurume Laboratory passed through activated charcoal filter,
- Intervals of water quality measurement: every 6 months,

RANGE-FINDING / PRELIMINARY STUDY
- Test concentrations: 96hr LC50 - 8.91 mg/L (Oryzias latipes),
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal: 50 and 5 microg/L,
measured: 47.4 and 5.06 microg/L (ave.)
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Lipid content:
3.32 %
Time point:
start of exposure
Lipid content:
3.33 %
Time point:
end of exposure
Type:
BCF
Value:
13 dimensionless
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Time of plateau:
28 d
Calculation basis:
steady state
Remarks on result:
other: Conc.in environment / dose:50 µg/L
Type:
BCF
Value:
<= 6 dimensionless
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Time of plateau:
28 d
Calculation basis:
steady state
Remarks on result:
other: Conc.in environment / dose:5 µg/L
Details on results:
No abnormality was observed

Test item concentration in water (microg/L)

 

 6 -day

 7 -day

14 -day 

19 -day 

22 -day 

28 -day 

Mean 

High-concentration 

47.5 

48.3 

49.3 

45.5 

48.6 

45.3 

47.4 

Low-concentration 

5.48 

4.97 

5.44 

4.73 

4.63 

5.08 

5.06 

BCF

 7 -day

14 --day 

19 -day 

22 -day 

28 -day 

High-concentration 

3.4, 5.2 

5.1, 5.7 

9.6, 8.1 

5.8, 6.1 

14, 12 

Low-concentration 

<=6.0, <=6.0 

13, <=6.0 

<=6.0, <=6.0 

8.8, 6.3 

<=6.0, <=6.0 

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Executive summary:

Divanadium pentaoxide was tested by Japanese Authorities under Japan Existing chemicals survey program in CSCL. Cyprinus carpio were exposed to V2O5 in freshwater under continuous flowthrough at concentrations of 5 or 50 µg/L during 28 days. The study followed the OECD 305 guideline with no deviation and was then judjed acceptable to showed that V2O5 did not bioaccumulate in fish species. The BCF found with a concentration of 50 µg V2O5/ L in the environnement was 13.

Description of key information

Divanadium pentaoxide was tested by Japanese Authorities under Japan Existing chemicals survey program in CSCL. The study followed the OECD 305 guideline with no deviation and was then judged acceptable to showed that V2O5 did not bioaccumulate in fish species. The BCF found with a concentration of 50 µg V2O5/ L in the environment was 13. This reliable value was kept as key value for chemical safety assessment.

The study from Holdway supports the Japanese value with a BCF varying from 27.9 to 11.6 for 0.041 mg/L to 0.48 mg/L concentrations of vanadium in water.

BCF of vanadium is thus at the low end of the range for metals, and the bioaccumulation danger from vanadium thus appears to be low.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

BCF (aquatic species):
13 dimensionless

Additional information