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Please be aware that this old REACH registration data factsheet is no longer maintained; it remains frozen as of 19th May 2023.

The new ECHA CHEM database has been released by ECHA, and it now contains all REACH registration data. There are more details on the transition of ECHA's published data to ECHA CHEM here.

Diss Factsheets

Toxicological information

Additional toxicological data

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Administrative data

additional toxicological information
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
no data available
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Well documented paper on the influence of lead-calcium interactions during pregnancy on foetal development.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study

Data source

Reference Type:
Effects of lead exposure before pregnancy and dietary calcium during pregnancy on fetal development and lead accumulation
Han, S.; et al.
Bibliographic source:
Environ. Health Perspec. 108, 527-531

Materials and methods

Type of study / information:
Study on lead-calcium interactions during pregnancy and potential influence on foetal development.
Test guideline
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Examination of the effects of lead exposure of female rats at an early age on fetal development during a subsequent pregancy.
GLP compliance:

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Lead acetate
EC Number:
EC Name:
Lead acetate
Cas Number:
lead(4+) tetraacetate
Constituent 2
Reference substance name:
EC Number:
EC Name:
Cas Number:
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Lead acetate
- Physical state: solid

- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Calcium in diet
- Calcium source not further specified

No further details are given.

Results and discussion

Any other information on results incl. tables

A total of 345 pups were delivered alive.

Lead-exposed dams and their pups had significantly higher blood lead concentrations than controls, but the concentrations were in the range of those found in many pregnant women.

Pups born to dams fed the calcium-deficient diet during pregnancy had higher blood and organ lead concentrations than pups born to dams fed the 0.5 % calcium diet.

Pups bom to lead-exposed dams had sigificantly (p < 0.0001) lower mean birth weights and birth length than controls.

There were sigificant inverse univariate associations between dam or pup organ lead concentrations and birth weight or length. The 0.5 % calcium diet did not increase in utero growth. Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that greater litter size and female sex were significanty associated with reduced pup birth weight and length. However, lead exposure that ended well before pregnancy was significantly (p < 0.0001) associated with reduced birth weight and length, even after litter size, pup sex, and dam weight gain during pregnancy were included in the regression analysis.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

The data demonstrate that an increase in dietary calcium during pregnancy can reduce foetal lead accumulation but cannot prevent lead-induced decreases in birth weight and length. The results provide evidence that dietary nutrients can influence the transfer of toxins to the foetus during pregnancy. If these results are applicable to women, an increase in dietary calcium during pregnancy could reduce the transfer of lead from prepregancy maternal exposures to the foetus.