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Environmental fate & pathways

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

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Description of key information

Bioaccumulation is not expected to be relevant for the test substance.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

There are no studies available for “Reaction product of thermal process between 1000°C and 2000°C of mainly aluminium oxide and calcium oxide based raw materials with at least CaO+Al2O3+MgO >80% , in which aluminium oxide, magnesium oxide and calcium oxide in varying amounts are combined in various proportions into a multiphase crystalline matrix”. As this substance is an UVCB substance with aluminium oxide (AL2O3), calcium oxide (CaO) and magnesium oxide (MgO) as main constituents, justification based on these main components were taken into accountby read across following a structural analogue approach.


Aluminium compounds:

Bioconcentration factors (BCF) and/or bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are typically calculated in order to estimate bioaccumulation and biomagnification. However, it has recently been demonstrated that unlike many organic substances, the BCF/BAF is not independent of exposure concentration for many metals (Brix and Deforest, 2000 and Mc Geer et al., 2003). Rather it is inversely related (i. e., decreasing BCF/BAFs with increasing exposure concentration) to exposure concentration. Metal concentrations in tissue based on a range of exposure concentrations may be quite similar but the BCFs will be quite variable reflecting an inverse relationship (i. e., higher BCFs at lower exposure concentrations and lower BCFs at higher exposure concentrations) between metal concentrations and the corresponding BCF (Brix et al, 2001). From the above it is clear that any conclusion based on the application of classical concepts (e. g., use of bioconcentration factors; BCF -biomagnification factors; BMF) to metals as they are applied to organic substances should be treated with caution. As a result, use of a simple ratio Cbiota/Cwateror Cbiota/Csedimentsas an overall approach for estimating bioconcentration factors for aluminium body burdens is not appropriate.

Calcium compounds:

Exposure to calcium oxide actually comes down to exposure to calcium ions and hydroxyl ions. There will be no intake of calcium oxide as such from an aquatic medium, nor will calcium oxide prevail under its original form in the organisms. Moreover, both the intake of the essential element calcium and the internal pH of an organism are actively regulated (homeostasis). Therefore, this endpoint is considered not to be relevant for calcium oxide.

Magnesium oxide:

Magnesium oxide (MgO) is exempted from registration according to EC 1907/2006 Annex V Section 10.



Brix KV, DK DeForest. 2000. Critical review of the use of bioconcentration factors for hazard classification of metals and metal compounds. OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) Aquatic Hazards Extended Workshop Meeting, May 15,,.


Brix, K. V., DeForest, D. K. and Adams, W. J. (2001), Assessing acute and chronic copper risks to freshwater aquatic life using species sensitivity distributions for different taxonomic groups. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 20: 1846–1856.


Herrmann and Frick. 1995. Do Stream Invertebrates Aluminium at low pH conditions Water, Air and Soil Pollution 85: 407-412.


McGeer et al. 2003. Inverse relationship between bioconcentration factor and exposure concentration for metals; implications for hazard assessment of metals in the aquatic environment. Env. Tox. And Chem. Vol 22, No 5.