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Description of key information

- Acute oral toxicity: The LD50 value of 650 mg/kg in rats were determined for LAS (LAS had a nominal chain length of 12 carbon atoms (range C9-C15) and an average molecular weight of 346)) as a read across for Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid. This show that Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid is of a slightly order of acute oral toxicity. 
-Acute Dermal Toxicity: An LD50 value of > 2000 mg/kg was obtained. The acute lethal dermal dose was found to be greater than 2000 mg/kg.
The clipped skin on the backs of five male and five female rats were exposed to the test material under an occlusive dressing for 24 hours and observed for another 14 days. Results indicate slight erythema and slight oedema but no acute mortality. The dermal LD50 is > 2000 mg/kg.
This show that Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (the result was read across from LAS) is not toxic for acute Dermal toxicity .
-Acute inhalation toxicity :
Based on the study of Kinney, L. 1985, exposure of 6 male rats to Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate the LC50 was 310 mg/m3 (particulate). At 310 mg/m3 one rat died during exposure and two rats died one day post exposure. No mortality occurred at concentrations up to 260 mg/m3.(NOEC). Therefore, the health effects of Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate need to be considered in the assessment of Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid.
Results indicate that Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (the result was read across from LAS) is not toxic for acute inhalation toxicity .
It is concluded that the substance Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid meet the criteria to be classified for human health hazards for acute oral effects.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Acute toxicity: via oral route

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
acute toxicity: oral
Type of information:
other: published data
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: Hagan, EC (1959). Acute toxicity. In: Appraisal of the Safety of Chemicals in Foods, Drugs and Cosmetics. pp. 17-25. Assoc. of Food and Drug Officials of the US, Bureau of Food and Drugs, Texas State Dept. of Health, Austin, Texas.
GLP compliance:
no
Test type:
acute toxic class method
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
other: FDRL strain(Wistar-derived)
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
young adult rats : FDRL strain (Wistar-derived)They were fasted overnight before this test.
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
water
Details on oral exposure:
10% and 40 % dispersions of the samles were prepared in distilled water and administered intragastrically.
Doses:
10% and 40% dispersion of LAS sample at dosages of 0.6 and 1.58 g/kg.
No. of animals per sex per dose:
3
Control animals:
yes
Details on study design:
- Duration of observation period following administration: 14 days
- Frequency of observations and weighing: observations for behaviour, appearance and survival were made daily; weighings were performed on days 0, 7, and 14
- Necropsy of survivors performed: yes
Statistics:
LD50 calculated by the method of Miller, LC, and Tainter, ML. (1994). Estimation of the ED50 and its error by means of logarithmic-probit graph paper. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 57, 261-264.
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
650 mg/kg bw
Based on:
act. ingr.
95% CL:
587 - 713
Mortality:
Motaliity was not affected.
Clinical signs:
A high incidence of diarrhea was noted with the use of the higher concentration. Those rats which succumbed appeared to be weak and showed reduced voluntary activity prior to death.
Body weight:
Those rats which succumbed appeared to be weak and showed reduced voluntary activity prior to death, whereas those that survived showed good weight increases during the 14-day period.
Gross pathology:
No significant gross abnormalities were seen at autopsy.
Interpretation of results:
Category 4 based on GHS criteria
Conclusions:
Acute oral LD50of LAS is 650 +/- 63 mg/kg (with a slope factor of 0.173) when the samples are administered in water dispersion to rats.
The acute oral LD50 in male/female rats is 650mg/kg bw. No significant gross abnormalities were seen at autopsy.
Executive summary:

An acute oral toxicity study was performed for linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS: nominal chain lengh of 12 carbon atoms and an average molecular weight of 346) using rats (FDRL strain, 3/sex/dose) for 14 days. 10% and 40% dispersions of the LAS were prepared in distilled water and administered intragastrically. The animals were observed several times daily for behavior, appearance, and survival for a 14-day period. They were weighed initially and at 7 and 14 days. All animals that died on test as well as those sacrificed at the conclusion of the observation period were necropsied. The acute oral LD50 in rats is 650mg/kg bw.No significant gross abnormalities were seen at autopsy.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Value:
650 mg/kg bw

Acute toxicity: via inhalation route

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
acute toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
other: published data
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Justification for type of information:
Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (CAS No. 25155-30-0, EC Number; 246-680-4) is a very close analogue of the dissociated acid because it readily dissociates in water and release the dodecylbenzene sulfonic anion in solution. Therefore, the health effects of Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate need to be considered in the assessment of Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Groups of six male 8-week old rats were restrained in perforated, stainless steel cylinders with conical nose pieces. Exposure was nose-only to an aerosol atmosphere for 4 hours. After exposure, rats were returned to their cages and observed for clinical signs for 14 days. Mean measured concentrations in the test chambers were 65, 120, 260, and 310 mg/m3. Chamber temperature ranged between 25-26oC.
GLP compliance:
yes
Test type:
other: Approximate lethal concentration (ALC)
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Crj: CD(SD)
Sex:
male
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Harlan Spague-Dawley,
- Age at study initiation: 8-week old
- Housing: stainless steel cylinders with conical nose pieces.
- Acclimation period: approximately one week

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 25 to 26
- Humidity (%): 40 to 70
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12
Route of administration:
inhalation: aerosol
Type of inhalation exposure:
nose only
Vehicle:
other: Exposure was nose-only to an aerosol atmosphere for 4 hours.
Details on inhalation exposure:
GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION
-Exposure was nose-only to an aerosol atmosphere for 4 hours.
- After exposure, rats were returned to their cages and observed for clinical signs or 14 days.
-Mean measured concentrations in the test chambers were 65, 120, 260, and 310 mg/m3.
-Chamber temperature ranged between 25-26oC.

TEST ATMOSPHERE
-Animals were given high exposures to respirable-sized particles (MMAD at 310 mg/m3 = 2.5 microns).
-Spray products containing LAS are designed to produce large particle sizes.
Analytical verification of test atmosphere concentrations:
yes
Duration of exposure:
ca. 4 h
Concentrations:
65, 120, 260, and 310 mg/m3.
No. of animals per sex per dose:
6 male 8-week old rats
Control animals:
yes
Details on study design:
-Groups of six male 8-week old rats were restrained in perforated, stainless steel cylinders with conical nose pieces.
-Exposure was nose-only to an aerosol atmosphere for 4 hours.
-After exposure, rats were returned to their cages and observed for clinical signs for 14 days.
-Mean measured concentrations in the test chambers were 65, 120, 260, and 310 mg/m3.
-Chamber temperature ranged between 25-26oC.
-Animals were given high exposures to respirable-sized particles (MMAD at 310 mg/m3 = 2.5 microns).
-Spray products containing LAS are designed to produce large particle sizes.
-These large particles are needed for efficient delivery of the spray to the surface being cleaned.
Sex:
male
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect level:
310 mg/m³ air
Based on:
test mat.
Exp. duration:
4 h
Remarks on result:
other: Approximate lethal concentration (ALC).The ALC is defined as the lowest atmospheric concentration generated that caused death in 1 or more rats either on the day of exposure or within 14 days post exposure.
Sex:
male
Dose descriptor:
other: NOEC
Effect level:
260 mg/m³ air
Based on:
test mat.
Exp. duration:
4 h
Remarks on result:
other: Based on No mortality occurred at concentrations up to 260 mg/m3.
Mortality:
At 310 mg/m3, one rat died during exposure and 2 rats died one day post exposure.
No mortality occurred at concentrations up to 260 mg/m3.
Clinical signs:
other: Particle sizes are much larger than the respirable particle sizes used in testing and therefore would not be able to reach far into the lungs where effects could occur.
Body weight:
During the recovery period, rats exhibited dose dependent weight loss 1 day post exposure followed by normal weight gains.
Gross pathology:
none

The ALC is defined as the lowest atmospheric concentration generated that caused death in one or more rates either on the day of exposure or within 14 days post exposure. No mortality occurred at concentrations up to 260 mg/m3. At 310 mg/m3 one rat died during exposure and two rats died one day post exposure. The test material is considered moderately toxic by inhalation. However, it is important to note that this laboratory exposure is not representative of the possible LAS exposure during actual use. In this study, animals were given high exposures to respirable-sized particles (MMAD at 310 mg/m3 = 2.5 microns). Spray products containing LAS are designed to produce large particle sizes. These large particles are needed for efficient delivery of the spray to the surfaces being cleaned. This results in particle sizes that are much larger than the respirable particle sizes used in testing and therefore would not be able to reach far into the lungs where effects would occur. Given this lack of relevance to real-world exposure potential, this use of this study beyond establishing the relative toxicity of the chemical is limited.

 

Interpretation of results:
other: not classified
Remarks:
Particle sizes are much larger than the respirable particle sizes used in testing and therefore would not be able to reach far into the lungs where effects could occur. Criteria used for interpretation of results: EU
Conclusions:
Based on this study, exposure of 6 male rats to Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate the LC50 was 310 mg/m3 (particulate). At 310 mg/m3 one rat died during exposure and two rats died one day post exposure. No mortality occurred at concentrations up to 260 mg/m3.(NOEC). Therefore, the health effects of Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate need to be considered in the assessment of Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid.
This results in particle sizes that are much larger than the respirable particle sizes used in testing and, therefore, would not be able to reach far into the lungs where effects could occur. Given this lack of relevance to real-world exposure potential, the use of this study for risk assessment purposes is limited.
Given this lack of relevance to real-world exposure potential, the use of this acute inhalation study for risk assessment purposes is limited. Due to the irritant nature of LAS, it is expected that high LAS aerosol concentrations may be irritating to the upper respiratory tract.
Executive summary:

Based on this study, exposure of 6 male rats to Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate  the LC50 was310 mg/m3(particulate).At 310 mg/m3 one rat died during exposure and two rats died one day post exposure. No mortality occurred at concentrations up to 260 mg/m3.(NOEC).Therefore, the health effects of Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate need to be considered in the assessment of Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid.

However, it is important to note that this laboratory exposure is not representative of the possible LAS exposure during actual use. In this study, animals were given high exposures to respirable-sized particles (MMAD at 310 mg/m3 = 2.5 microns). Spray products containing LAS are designed to produce large particle sizes. These large particles are needed for efficient delivery of the spray to the surfaces being cleaned. This results in particle sizes that are much larger than the respirable particle sizes used in testing and therefore would not be able to reach far into the lungs where effects would occur. Given this lack of relevance to real-world exposure potential, this use of this study beyond establishing the relative toxicity of the chemical is limited.

 

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Value:
310 mg/m³

Acute toxicity: via dermal route

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
acute toxicity: dermal
Type of information:
other: published data
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 402 (Acute Dermal Toxicity)
GLP compliance:
yes
Test type:
standard acute method
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
other: CFY (remote Sprague Dawley origin)
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
Rats were in a weight range of 210 to 239 g prior to dosing on day 1 and approximately six to eight weeks of age. All the rats were acclimated to the experimental environment for a period of 15 days prior to study initiation. Animals were housed in individual metal cages with wire mesh floors. Standard diet and water were provided ad libitum. Each animal was identified by cage number and ear punching.
Type of coverage:
occlusive
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on dermal exposure:
Test material was a yellow viscous liquid and was applied to an area clipped with electric clippers (approximately 10% of the area) on the backs of 10 rats (five male, five female) at a dose of 2000 mg/kg. The areas were covered with gauze held in place with an impermeable plastic dressing. At the end of 24 hours the dressings were carefully removed and the treated area of skin washed in warm water and blotted dry with absorbent paper.
Duration of exposure:
24 hr
Doses:
2000 mg/kg (undiluted)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5 male and 5 female
Control animals:
not specified
Details on study design:
Animals were observed soon after dosing and then at frequent intervals for the remainder of day 1. On subsequent days the animals were observed once in the morning and again at the end of the experimental day. The treated areas were examined daily for signs of dermal irritation and assessed according to the standard scoring system for erythema, eschar and oedema. All animals were observed for 14 days after dosing. On day 15 all animals were sacrificed and given a macroscopic post-mortem examination of internal organs.
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
> 2 000 mg/kg bw
Based on:
act. ingr.
Remarks on result:
other: undiluted
Mortality:
No mortality was observed exposure to 2000 mg/kg of the undiluted test material.
Clinical signs:
There were no signs of systemic reaction. Well defined or slight erythema and slight oedema were observed at all test sites after removal of the occlusive dressings. These reactions were unresolved before progressive hardening of the skin was first detected on day 4. All test sites were entirely covered by scab formation from day 7. Sloughing from the scabbed skin began at various times between day 7 and day 12 and was completed before test termination.
Body weight:
Low bodyweight gains or loss of bodyweight were recorded for one male and three female rats on day 8. Two of the same females and a third female rat also showed low bodyweight gains between days 8 and 15.
Gross pathology:
All terminal autopsy findings were normal.

There were no deaths or signs of a systemic reaction following a single dermal application at 2000 mg/kg bw. Well defined or slight erythema and slight oedema were observed at all test sites after removal of the occlusive dressing on Day 2. All test sites were entirely covered by scab formation from Day 7. Sloughing from the scabbed skin began at various timesbetween Day 7 and Day 12 and was completed before termination. Lowbodyweight gains or loss of body weight were recorded for one male andthree females in Day 8. Two of the same females and a third female alsoshowed low bodyweight gain between Days 8 and 15.

Interpretation of results:
other: not classified
Remarks:
Criteria used for interpretation of results: EU
Conclusions:
The acute lethal dermal dose was found to be greater than 2000 mg/kg.
Executive summary:

The clipped skin on the backs of five male and five female rats were exposed to the test material under an occlusive dressing for 24 hours and observed for another 14 days. Results indicate slight erythema and slight oedema but no acute mortality. The dermal LD50 is > 2000 mg/kg.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Value:
2 000 mg/kg bw

Additional information

 Oral toxicity

-An acute oral toxicity study (Oser and Morgareidge, 1965) was performed for linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS: nominal chain lengh of 12 carbon atoms and an average molecular weight of 346)usingrats (FDRL strain, 3/sex/dose) for 14 days.10% and 40% dispersions of the LAS were prepared in distilled water and administered intragastrically. The animals were observed several times daily for behavior, appearance, and survival for a 14-day period. They were weighed initially and at 7 and 14 days. All animals that died on test as well as those sacrificed at the conclusion of the observation period were necropsied.

The acute oral LD50in rats is 650 mg/kg bw. No significant gross abnormalities were seen at autopsy.

-An acute oral toxicity study (Hoechst AG, 1988) was performed for Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate as a surrogate for benzene sulfonic acid, dodecyl- (27176-87-0).The acute oral LD50 in male/female rats is 500-2000 mg/kg bw. No significant gross abnormalities were seen at autopsy.

-An acute oral toxicity study(Hempstock, C1988) was performed for Benzene sulfonic acid, C10-16-alkyl derivatives (68584-22-5) as a surrogate for benzene sulfonic acid, dodecyl- (27176-87-0).The acute oral LD50 in male/female rats is 775 mg/kg bw. LD50 value is geometric mean between 300 and 2000 mg/kg.

-An acute oral toxicity study (Murmann, P.1984) was performed for Benzenesulfonic acid, C10-13-alkyl derivs., sodium salts as a surrogate for benzene sulfonic acid, dodecyl- (27176-87-0).The acute oral LD50 is 1080 mg/kg.

 

The acute oralLD50in male/female rats is 650mg/kg bw.This show that Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid is of a slightly order of acute oral toxicity.

Dermal toxicity

An LD50 value of > 2000 mg/kg was obtained.The acute lethal dermal dose was found to be greater than 2000 mg/kg.

 

The clipped skin on the backs of five male and five female rats were exposed to the test material under an occlusive dressing for 24 hours and observed for another 14 days. Results indicate slight erythema and slight oedema but no acute mortality. The dermal LD50 is > 2000 mg/kg.

This show that Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (the result was read across from LAS) is not toxic for acute Dermal toxicity .

Inhalation toxicity

 

Based on the study of Kinney, L. 1985, exposure of 6 male rats to Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate  the LC50 was 310 mg/m3 (particulate). At 310 mg/m3 one rat died during exposure and two rats died one day post exposure. No mortality occurred atconcentrations up to 260 mg/m3.(NOEC). Therefore, the health effects of Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate need to be considered in the assessment of Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid.

Results indicate that Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (the result was read across from LAS) is not toxic for acute inhalation toxicity .

It is concluded that the substance Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid meet the criteria to be classified for human health hazards for acute oral effects.

 

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on the hazard assessment of  Dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid/ Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, in section 2.1 and 2.2. in IUCLID 6, available data for the substance and following the “Guidance on Information Requirement and Chemical Safety Assessment R.8. Characterisation of dose [concentration]- response for human health”, according to the EU’s list of dangerous substances (OJEC No L200/130.7.99)and according to the criteria described in Directive 67/548 and in the CLP Regulation:

Directive 67/548

Very Toxic (T+)

R28: Very toxic if swallowed

R27: Very toxic in contact with skin

R26: Very toxic by inhalation

R39/26 R39/27 R39/28: Dangerous of very serious irreversible effects

Toxic (T): 

R25: Toxic if swallowed

R24: Toxic in contact with skin

R23: Toxic by inhalation

R39/23 R39/24 R39/25: Danger of very serious irreversible effects

Harmful (Xn):

R22: Harmful if swallowed

R21: Harmful in contact with skin

R20: Harmful by inhalation

R65: Harmful may cause lung damage if swallowed

R21/22 Harmful; Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed.

R68/20 R68/21 R68/22: Possible risk of irreversible effects

Other toxicological properties

R67: Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness

CLP

H300 Acute Tox. 2 Fatal if swallowed

H310 Acute Tox. 1 Fatal in contact with skin

H330 Acute Tox. 2 Fatal if inhaled

H370 STOT SE 1

H301 Acute Tox. 3 Toxic if swallowed

H311 Acute Tox. 3 Toxic in contact with skin

H331 Acute Tox. 3 Toxic if inhaled

H370 STOT SE 1

H302 Acute Tox. 4 Harmful if swallowed

H312 Acute Tox. 4 Harmful in contact with skin

H332 Acute Tox. 4 Harmful if inhaled

H304 Asp. Tox. 1

H371 STOT SE 2 (May cause damage to organs (or state all organsaffected if known) (state route of exposure if it is conclusively proventhat no other routes of exposure cause the hazard)

Other toxicological properties

H336 STOT SE 3 May cause drowsiness or dizziness

 

 

 

It is concluded that the substance Dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid/ Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid), meet the criteria to be classified for human health hazards for acute oral effects:

R22: Harmful if swallowed

H302 Acute Tox. 4 Harmful if swallowed