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Please be aware that this old REACH registration data factsheet is no longer maintained; it remains frozen as of 19th May 2023.

The new ECHA CHEM database has been released by ECHA, and it now contains all REACH registration data. There are more details on the transition of ECHA's published data to ECHA CHEM here.

Diss Factsheets

Administrative data

biotransformation and kinetics
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment

Data source

Reference Type:
The effect of 2-aminobutan-1-ols on the growth of the housefly (Musca domestica)
Bridges RG, Ricketts J
Bibliographic source:
Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 1968, vol. 25, pp. 383 to 400

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
Houseflies were grown in diets with and without choline, and growth rate and incorporation into housefly phospholipids were observed, with and without AMP.
GLP compliance:
Type of medium:

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
EC Number:
EC Name:
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
Details on test material:
Obtained commercially and where necessary redistilled before use.

Results and discussion

Transformation products:

Any other information on results incl. tables

Irrespective of AMP supply in diet: influence of choline supply:

- at <=2 μmole choline/g casein, there was a decrease in phosphatidylcholine % among total phospholipids (the latter was not significantly affected in this study with/without AMP)

- at 0.25 μmole choline/g casein (lowest dose), 6-day larvae weight was decreased.

With diets containing 16 μmole AMP/g casein, compared to AMP-free diets:

- at <=1 μmole choline/g casein, AMP lowered (but did not annul) the decrease in phosphatidylcholine % among total phospholipids, suggesting AMP was partially incorporated into this phospholipid instead of choline;

- at <=0.5 μmole choline/g casein, number of live 6-day larvae was much reduced by AMP;

- at 0.25 μmole choline/g casein (lowest dose), 6-day larvae weight was 2-fold reduced by AMP.

With diets containing 16 μmole AMP/g casein (no AMP-free control):

- at <=4 μmole choline/g casein, there was an increase in phosphatidylaminobutanols % among total phospholipids, clearly showing that AMP was incorporated into this other phospholipid; the effect was inversely related to choline supply.

Altogether this shows AMP is incorporated into phospholipids instead of choline, only when choline supply throught diet is insufficient.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

As a single AMP dietary dose was tested in housefly larvae until day 6, with multiple dietary choline doses, results can only be expressed relative to choline.
When testing effects of a series of decreasing choline dietary concentrations in housefly larvae:
- AMP ingestion had no effect when choline was at least 8 μmole choline/g casein,
- first AMP effects to occur are non-adverse: incorporation into phospholipids (phosphatidylaminobutanols at <= 4 μmole choline/g casein, phosphatidylcholine at <=1 μmole choline/g casein)
- AMP adverse effects start at even lower choline supplies (at <=0.5 μmole choline/g casein, number of live 6-day larvae was much reduced; at 0.25 μmole choline/g casein, 6-day larvae weight was 2-fold reduced).
This study evidences that AMP antagonises choline when both are provided in diet. However it does not replace its physiological roles in growth, notably.