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Ecotoxicological information

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All 11 available studies evidence negligible acute toxicity to aquatic organisms, with similar sensitivity of freshwater and marine species:


In algae, 72h NOEC, EC10 and EC50 values were:



  • not determined, 198 and 467 mg/L in freshwater species Scenedesmus (endpoint not specified);

  • 6.6, 68.8 and >103 mg/L (estimated as 789 mg/L) in freshwater species Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (growth rate);

  • 103, >103 and >103 (no estimation possible in absence of effect at any concentration) in marine species Skeletonema costatum (growth rate).


In invertebrates, NOEC and LC50 values were:



  • 95 and 183 mg/L, resp. over 48h in freshwater species Daphnia magna;

  • not determined and 59 mg/L, over 24h in Daphnia magna (unreliable study);

  • 95 and 170 mg , resp. over 48h in marine species Crangon crangon.


In fish, NOEC and LC50 values were:



  • 95 and 180 mg/L, resp. over 96h in freshwater fish Lepomis macrochirus

  • 320 and 331 mg/L, resp. over 48h in freshwater fish Leuciscus idus melanotus;

  • 95 and 175 mg/L, resp. over 96h in marine fish Pleuronectes platessa.


In activated sludge:



  • NOEC, EC10 and LC50 values of 100, between 100 and 300, and 342.9 mg/L resp. over 3h;

  • LOEC and EC50 values of 68 and 119 mg/L over 120h (NOEC/EC10 not determined);

  • No significant toxicity in toxicity controls in biodegradation assays.


9/11 studies lacked analytical follow-up. However, measured concentrations in two 2014 algae studies demonstrated the stability in both fresh- and saltwater media over 96h.


No long-term data are available.

Additional information