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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to terrestrial arthropods

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Reference
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial arthropods: short-term
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
GLP - Guideline study, tested with the source substance thiram (CAS No. 137-26-8). In accordance to the ECHA guidance document “Practical guide 6: How to report read-across and categories (March 2010)”, the reliability was changed from RL1 to RL2 to reflect the fact that this study was conducted on an read-across substance
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: EPPO Guideline No. 170, 1992, basis for the later OECD Guidelines 213, 214
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Remarks:
Ministry for Environment and Traffic, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
Application method:
other: oral and contact
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Oral test: The test material was dissolved in tap water in order to get a stock solution. The different doses were prepared by mixing a definite amount of the test substance solution with a definite amount of a 50% sucrose solution such that the respective concentration calculated for one bee was found in 20 uL.

Contact test: The test material was dissolved in tap water.
Test organisms (species):
Apis mellifera
Animal group:
Hymenoptera (honeybees)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Honey bee
- Source: descendant colony from a breeding line of a beekeeper in Baden-Württemberg, Germany
- Age at test initiation (mean and range, SD): approx. 22-32 days
- Disease free: yes

Study type:
laboratory study
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Test temperature:
24-27°C
Humidity:
Relative humidity: 50 and 66%
Photoperiod and lighting:
Constant darkness
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container / cage: steel cages (10 cm x 5.5 cm x 8.5 cm). The front side was equipped with a transparent pane so the bees could be observed. The bottom of the cages consisted of a perforated board, which guaranteed sufficient air supply for the insects. The cages were lined with filter paper
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 10
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 1
- No. of replicates per per control: 1

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality at 2, 4, 24 and 48 hours

FOOD CONSUMPTION (if oral study)
- Amount of treated diet consumed per group: 250 uL

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal both tests: 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 ug a.i./bee
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
Perfekthion (active ingredient: dimethoate)
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect conc.:
> 113.91 µg per animal
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: Oral test
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect conc.:
> 100 µg per animal
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: Contact test
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes

Description of key information

LD50 (24 h) > 113.91 µg per animal and > 100 µg per animal (Apis mellifera, oral and contact exposure respectively)

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

No data on toxicity of disulfiram to terrestrial arthropods (CAS No. 97 -77 -8) were available. Therefore, a conclusion based on analogue approach had to be drawn. The acute oral and contact toxicity of tetramethylthiuram disulfide (CAS No. 137-26-8), substance structurally and composition related to tetraethylthiuram disulfide, to honey bees was investigated in a study. This test was conducted according to the EPPO Guideline No. 170 Guideline for Evaluation of Side Effects of Plant Protection Products on honey bees (Apis mellifera) (1992), under GLP conditions. No significant lethal effects were observed

up to the highest concentrations tested during oral or contact exposures , being the LD50 > 113.91 µg per animal and > 100 µg per animal respectively.