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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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This endpoint was covered by a weight of evidence approach including two read across studies, one for zirconium dioxide, and one for zirconium basic carbonate. These read across substances are both insoluble in water, as is zirconium basic sulfate. Both studies show that at (nominal) test substance concentrations of 100 mg/L, no adverse effects occur in aquatic invertebrates. Based on the results of these studies, zirconium basic sulfate is not expected to adversely affect aquatic invertebrates either at similar concentrations.

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Two reliable read across studies were identified, one for zirconium dioxide, and one for zirconium basic carbonate. Both substances are insoluble in water, as is zirconium basic sulfate.

In the study of Bazin (1994), the acute toxicity of zirconium dioxide to Daphnia magna was studied under static conditions according to EU method C.2. No significant immobilization was observed at a loading rate of 100 mg/L (ZrO2). The 48-h EC50 was thus superior to this value.

In the study of Goodband and Mullee (2010), conducted according to OECD guideline 202, a saturated solution of zirconium basic carbonate (nominal loading rate 100 mg/L) did not induce any immobilisation of Daphnia magna after 48 hours of exposure. Dissolved zirconium concentrations in the test solutions were < LOQ. Therefore the 48-h EC50 is > 100 mg/L.

The results of these studies can be used as an indication that zirconium basic sulfate, which is also a zirconium compound which is insoluble in water, will not adversely affect aquatic invertebrates either at similar concentrations.