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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to fish

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Description of key information

Expected non toxic to fish.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
1 g/L

Additional information

No specific information exists on the short-term toxicity to fish of lysozyme hydrochloride; however considering that lysozyme is naturally occurring in many organisms, including aquatic organisms, it is expected to be non-toxic for aquatic life at the threshold concentrations commonly used in the (eco)toxicological tests.

The acute toxicity has been investigated on the base of the comparison with other enzymes, specifically, lipase, cellulase and Subtilisins (Protease).

- Cellulase: Method ISO/DIS/7346, LC50 zebra fish at 96 -h > 1000 mg active enzyme protein (aep)/l (HERA 2005; Greenough and Everett, 1991)

- Lipase: LC50 Cyprinus carpio at 96 -h > 1000 mg aep/l (HERA 2005; Greenough and Everett, 1991)

- Savinase: according to the OECD 203, LC50 at 96 -h: 200-400 > 1000 mg/l (heat inactivated enzyme) (probably not based on aep) (HERA 2007; NICNAS, 1993).

- Savinase, Maxatese P: LC50 on Poecilia reticulatus at 24 -h: 25 mg aep/l (HERA 2007; Mann, 1971)

- Maxatase P: LC50 on Oncorhynchus mykiss at 24 -h: 15 mg aep/L(young fish) and 5 mg aep/l (eggs and larvae) (HERA 2007; Mann 1971)

- Maxatase P: LC50 on Rivulus cylindraceus at 24 -h: 1 mg aep/l (HERA 2007; Mann, 1971)

- Maxatase P: LC50 on Anguilla anguilla (eel) at 24 -h: 7.5 mg aep/L (sea water); 20 mg aep/l (brack water) and 30 mg aep/L (fresh water) (HERA 2007; Mann, 1971)

- Subtilisin: Coregonus lavaretus wartmanni LC50 at 96 -h: 350 mg/l (probably not based on aep) (HERA 2007; Schöberl and Huber, 1988)

- Subtilisin: Poecilia reticulata (Guppy) LC50 at 24 -h: 25 mg/l (probably not based on aep) (HERA 2007; Schöberl and Huber, 1988)

 

The existing data on the acute toxicity to fish of enzymes reported values of the LC50 in a range between 1 - 1000 mg/l.

Nevertheless data by Mann (1971), Schöberl and Huber (1988) are not conducted in compliance with the standard test methods, thus they were evaluated by HERA as not reliable and, hence, not suitable for the aquatic toxicity assessment.

Considering only reliable data, it can be concluded that enzymes in general are non-toxic for fish.

 

In conclusion, on the basis of the comparison with other enzymes, Lysozyme may be considered as non-toxic to fish. Since data available are not specific for Lysozyme, it is preferred to make a qualitative assessment.

 

REFERENCE

Greenough RJ, Everett DJ (1991) Safety evaluation of alkaline cellulase. Food and Chemical Toxicology 29: 781-785.

HERA (2005). Human and environmental risk assessment on ingredients of household cleaning products - alpha-amylases, cellulases and lipases.

HERA (2007). Human and environmental risk assessment on ingredients of household cleaning products - Subtilisins (Proteases). Edition 2.0. 2007.

NICNAS (1993). Savinase™ - Proteolytic enzymes in detergents. Full Public Report. Australian Government Publishing Service. ISBN 0 644 24554 9. *

Mann H (1971) Untersuchungen über die Wirkung von Waschmittelenzymen auf Fische und andere Wasserorganismen. Archive der Fischerwissenschaft 22; 146-154.**

Oystein Lie, Oystein Evensen, Anita Sorensen, Ellen Froysadal (1989). Study on lysozyme activity in some fish species. Dis. aquat. Org. 6: 1-5.

Schöberl P and Huber L, (1988) Ökologisch relevante Daten von nichttensidischen Inhaltsstoffen in Wasch- und Reinigungsmitteln. Tenside Detergents 3/4: 86-107 **

 

*Reported as Klimisch 2 in the HERA document.

**Reported as Klimisch 4 in the HERA document.