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Toxicological information

Developmental toxicity / teratogenicity

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
not reported
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
The study is considered as reliable with restrictions since it is conducted for read-across substance, but is well documented and performed similar to OECD 414. Read-across justification: Based on the chemical composition, the renewable hydrocarbons produced from raw materials such as fatty acid rich oil like Crude Tall Oil (CTO) or triglyserides, using a hydrotreatment process have similar hydrocarbon fractions and they contain the same critical constituents than fossil diesel fuels. According to the identified hydrocarbon blocks, the typical carbon number ranges and the physicochemical properties, the renewable hydrocarbons with diesel type fractions can be considered as having structural similarities and similar behaviour in contact with water and in the physiological processes than the analogue source substances (fossil diesel fuels). Their irritation properties, skin sensitisation property as well as acute and long-term adverse effects to human health is similar. Therefore, and in order to avoid the unnecessary animal testing, the read-across data from the analogue fossil diesel fuels is used to evaluate skin and eye irritation, the genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity, developmental toxicity and short term and/or long-term toxicological effects of the target substance.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Inhalation teratology of Jet fuel A, Fuel oil and petroleum Naphtha in Rats
Author:
Beliles, R.P. and Mecler, F.J.
Year:
1982
Bibliographic source:
In: MacFarland HN, ed. Proceedings of the Symposium on the toxicology of petroleum hydrocarbons. American Petroleum Institute

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 414 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study)
GLP compliance:
no
Limit test:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
Name of test material (as cited in publication): Fuel oil (No. 2 home heating oil) boiling range 225 - 321 deg. C

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
other: CRL:COBS CD (SD)BR
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Breeding Laboratories, Portage, Michigan
- Age at study initiation: not reported
- Weight at study initiation: Not reported
- Housing: Individually except during mating
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): Purina Laboratory Chow ad libitum
- Water (e.g. ad libitum):acidified water (pH 2.5) ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 7-19 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): Not reported
- Humidity (%): Not reported
- Air changes (per hr): Not reported
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 hours dark/12 hours light

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
inhalation: vapour
Type of inhalation exposure (if applicable):
whole body
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on exposure:
GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION
Exposures to jet fuel A, naphtha and fuel oil were carried out in 0.25 cubic meter stainless steel and plexiglass dynamíc inhalatíon chambers. These chambers were of rectangular crosssection with pyramidal tops and bases. Chamber room air was used as dilution air. All chamber exhausts were treated to remove the test material before discharge to the atmosphere.

- Temperature, humidity, pressure in air chamber: 26.7 deg. C - 28.2 deg. C

TEST ATMOSPHERE
- Brief description of analytical method used: The exposure chambers were periodícal1y monitored throughout the exposure by use of a Scott Model 216 Hydrocarbon Ana]yzer.
- Samples taken from breathing zone: no
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
The exposure chambers were periodícally monitored throughout the exposure by use of a Scott Model 216 Hydrocarbon Ana]yzer.
Details on mating procedure:
After acclimation each female was paired with a sexually-mature maIe of the same strain obtained from the same supplier at the same time as the females. Each day the females were examined for the presence of a copulatory plug. The presence of such a plug was taken as evidence of mating. The day the plug was discovered was designated Day O of gestation.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
From Day 6 through 15 of gestatíon.
Frequency of treatment:
Daily for six hours.
Duration of test:
14 days
No. of animals per sex per dose:
20 pregnant females per dose
Control animals:
yes, sham-exposed
Details on study design:
Mated female rats were assigned sequentially to exposure groups until there were 20 in each group.

Examinations

Maternal examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: daily
- Cage side observations included changes in general appearance, behavior and condition.

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: No

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Days 0, 6, 15, 20 of gestation

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if feeding study): No data

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if drinking water study): No data

POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS: Yes
- Sacrifice on gestation day 20
- Organs examined: Visceral and thoracic organs

Ovaries and uterine content:
The ovaries and uterine content was examined after termination: Yes
Examinations included:
- Gravid uterus weight: No
- Number of corpora lutea: No
- Number of implantations: Yes
- Number of early resorptions: Yes
- Number of late resorptions: Yes
Fetal examinations:
- External examinations: Yes: all per litter
- Soft tissue examinations: Yes: one third per litter
- Skeletal examinations: Yes: one third per litter
- Head examinations: Yes: one third per litter
Statistics:
Dunnett's t-test was used to determine statistical significance (p<0.05) with regard to difference between means with near-normal distribution (body weights and food consumption of dams, mean pup weight based on litter averages). Ratios, Le., sex and pregnancy ratios, were analyzed with a 2 x 2 contingency table with Yates' correction. With regard to discontinuous parameters, such as the number of abnormal fetuses within a litter, Wilcoxon Rank Sum was used.

Results and discussion

Results: maternal animals

Maternal developmental toxicity

Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects:no effects

Details on maternal toxic effects:
Exposure to fuel oil was without effect with regard to eye irritation or irritation of mucous membranes. Neither body weight nor food consumption reflected a compound related change.




Effect levels (maternal animals)

open allclose all
Dose descriptor:
NOAEC
Effect level:
400 ppm (analytical)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity
Dose descriptor:
NOAEC
Effect level:
400 ppm (analytical)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: developmental toxicity

Results (fetuses)

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:no effects

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Data did not suggest any significant changes. The sex ratio derived from the examinatíon of the Bouin's fixed specimen, likewise, did not differ between the exposed and control groups. Examination of the Bouin's fixed specimen revealed one fetus from a 100 ppm with an internal hydrocephalus. This was not judged to be compound related.
The results of skeletal examinations did not indicate an adverse effects on fetal growth and development or teratogenic potential.

Effect levels (fetuses)

Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
400 ppm
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: no observed effects at the highest dose tested
Remarks on result:
not determinable due to absence of adverse toxic effects

Fetal abnormalities

Abnormalities:
not specified

Overall developmental toxicity

Developmental effects observed:
not specified

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Exposure of pregnant rats to fuel oil was investigated by exposure to vapour concentrations of 0, 100 and 400 ppm on days 6 through to 15 of gestation. Exposure to fuel oil (vapour) did not result in compound-induced maternal toxicity or development of foetuses. Therefore the NOAEC was concluded to be 400 ppm (2 110 mg/m3), the highest concentration tested.
Executive summary:

The study was conducted for the read-across substance, fuel oil, no.2, which is similar to diesel fuel. The result of this study is used as weight of evidence to evaluate the reproduction toxicity of renewable hydrocarbons of wood origin (diesel type fraction). The study is regarded as reliable with restrictions since it is conducted for read-across substance, but is well documented and performed similar to OECD 414.

Pregnant female rats were exposed on day 6 -15 of gestation fuel oil vapour at concentrations of 400 or 100 ppm. The substance did not produce any signs of eye irritation or mucous membrane irritation at both 100 and 400 ppm in the exposed animals. There was no evidence of fuel oil induced effects on litter size, fetal sex ratio, embryotoxicity or inhibition of fetal growth.