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Administrative data

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Genetic toxicity in vitro

Description of key information

Based on the available data the members of the PFAE fumarates category are considered to be non genotoxic.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (negative)

Additional information

No data are available for the substance therefore data on a category substance -Didodecyl fumarate (CAS 2402-58-6) are used for the assessment of genetic toxicity. This substance was selected for testing, because it represents the category member with the shortest fatty alcohol side chain, and consequently with the lowest molecular weight, which is regarded as worst-case approach in terms of hazard assessment of the PFAE fumarates for the local as well as for systemic effects.

A detailed justification for the grouping of chemicals and read-across is provided in the technical dossier (IUCLID Section 13) and within Chapter 5.1 of the CSR.

Genetic toxicity (mutagenicity) in bacteria in vitro

Only one in vitro study investigating mutagenicity to bacteria is available for the PFAE fumarate category. The potential mutagenicity of Didodecyl fumarate (CAS 2402-58-6) was tested in a bacterial gene mutation assay according to OECD 471, EU Method B.13/14 and EPA OPPTS 870.5100. (Woitkowiak, 2013). In two independent experiments, the S. typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100 and E. coli WP2 uvr A were exposed to the test substance at concentrations of 33, 100, 333, 1000, 2700 and 5400 µg/plate. Both experiments were performed in the absence or presence of a liver microsomal activation system (S9 mix) using either the plate incorporation or the pre-incubation method (20 min pre-incubation time). No cytotoxicity was noted in the treated bacteria strains up to precipitating concentrations when compared to controls. Precipitation of the test substance was observed at 333 µg/plate onward with and without S9 mix. The mean number of revertant colonies per plate was not significantly increased at any test concentration. The solvent and the positive control substances proved the validity of the study for each tester strain. Under the conditions of this assay, Didodecyl fumarate was found to be non-mutagenic in S. typhimurium strains (TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100) and E. coli WP2 uvr A, both in the presence and absence of S9 mix.

 

Genetic toxicity (cytogenicity) in mammalian cells in vitro

Only one in vitro study on the induction of cytogenicity in mammalian cells is available for the PFAE fumarate category.

The potential cytogenicity of Didodecyl fumarate was tested in the in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test (Bohnenberger, 2013), conducted according to OECD 487 and EU Method B.49 and in compliance with GLP Principles. Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79) were treated with the test item dissolved in tetra hydro furan (THF) both in the presence and absence of a metabolic activation system (S9 mix). Two independent experiments were conducted with concentrations of 0.6 - 2200.0 µg/ml: in Experiment I the cells were exposed to the test substance for 4 h with and without S9 mix; in Experiment 2 exposure was conducted for 24 h without S9 mix and for 4 h with S9 mix. In every case, duplicate cultures were prepared. After fixation and staining with Giemsa, 1000 cells/culture were scored and examined for micronucleated cells. Cytotoxicity was determined by means of proliferation index. There were no statistically significant cytotoxic and genotoxic properties noted at any dose level tested up to precipitating concentrations. Appropriate solvent and positive controls were included into this test and gave the expected results: the solvent control data were within the range of the historical control data, and a significant increase in micronucleated cells treated with the positive control substances proved the sensitivity of the test. The test item Didodecyl fumarate is therefore concluded to be not genotoxic under the conditions of this test. In conclusion, Didodecyl fumarate was not clastogenic to Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79) with or without exogenous metabolic activation system

 

Genetic toxicity (mutagenicity) in mammalian cells in vitro

Only one in vitro study on the induction of mutagenicity in mammalian cells is available for the PFAE fumarate category.

An in vitro mammalian cell gene mutation assay (HPRT assay) with Didodecyl fumarate (CAS 2402-58-6) was performed according to OECD 476, EU Method B.17 and EPA OPPTS 870.5300 and in compliance with GLP principles (Wollny, 2013). Mutations at the HPRT locus of Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79) were investigated in two independent experiments at test substance concentrations of 1, 3, 9, 27 and 81 µg/ml. The cells were exposed both with and without metabolic activation (S9-mix) for 4 h each in the first experiment and for 4 and 24 h with or without S9-mix in the second experiment, respectively. The cells were allowed to express their genotype for 7-9 days, followed by a selection period of 8 days in the presence of 6-TG. The test substance did not induce a significant increase in the mutant frequency at any test substance concentration with or without metabolic activation. There was no cytotoxicity noted at any concentration tested. Test substance precipitation was noted at 27 µg/ml and above in all experimental parts; in addition small droplets were noted as phase separation. Appropriate positive and solvent controls were included into the test and gave the expected results. In conclusion, the test substance was not mutagenic to Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79) in the HPRT assay with or without metabolic activation up to precipitating concentrations.

 

Genetic toxicity in vivo

No in vivo studies on genetic toxicity are available for the PFAE fumarate category.

 

Conclusion for genetic toxicity

Data investigating genetic toxicity in vitro within the fumerate category are available only for Didodecyl fumarate (CAS 2402-58-6). In summary, Didodecyl fumarate (CAS 2402-58-6) was tested negative for mutagenicity to bacteria in the Ames test, negative for cytogenicity in the in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test and negative for mutagenicity to mammalian cells in the HPRT test

Therefore, based on the available data the members of the PFAE fumarates category are considered to be non genotoxic.

A detailed reference list is provided in the technical dossier (see IUCLID, section 13) and within CSR.

Justification for classification or non-classification

According to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 "General Requirements for Generation of Information on Intrinsic Properties of substances", information on intrinsic properties of substances may be generated by means other than tests e.g. from information from structurally related substances (grouping or read-across), provided that conditions set out in Annex XI are met. Annex XI, "General rules for adaptation of this standard testing regime set out in Annexes VII to X” states that “substances whose physicochemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological properties are likely to be similar or follow a regular pattern as a result of structural similarity may be considered as a group, or ‘category’ of substances. This avoids the need to test every substance for every endpoint". Since the group concept is applied to the members of the PFAE fumarate category, data will be generated from representative reference substance(s) within the category to avoid unnecessary animal testing. Additionally, once the group concept is applied, substances will be classified and labelled on this basis.

Therefore, based on the group concept, all available data on genetic toxicity do not meet the classification criteria according to Regulation (EC) 1272/2008, and therefore the substance is not classified for genetic toxicity