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Diss Factsheets

Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Administrative data

Link to relevant study record(s)

Description of key information

The result from the key study using WAFs with Mandarin Oil was 48h-EL50 = 8.9 mg/l.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Effect concentration:
8.9 mg/L

Additional information

Summary of Daphnia studies






 8.9 mg/l (WAF Mandarin oil)

OECD 202, GLP, Rel. 1, KEY study

Harlan 2011


65.9 mg/l Mandarin Oil (with solvent)

OECD 202, GLP, Rel. 3

Barth 2001

Two toxicity studies are available with Mandarin Oil, see table. One is considered not reliable for many reasons including the high test concentrations far above the water solubility limits and that it is not reported whether measures were taken to prevent evaporation of the test substance (open or closed vessel) (Barth 2001, Rel. 3).

In the other study the acute toxicity of Mandarin Oil (Citrus Reticulata Blanco) ext. towards Daphnia magna was investigated according to OECD guideline 202 under GLP. In view of the poor solubility in water, Water Accommodated Fractions were prepared. Daphnids were exposed to nominal loading rates of 1.0, 2.2, 4.8, 11 and 24 mg/l of the test substance and observed for 48 hours. Based on nominal loading rates, the 48h-NOEL and 48h-EL50 were found to be 2.2 and 8.9 mg/l respectively. This study is used as the key study (Harlan 2011, Rel. 1).

Remark: In the test of Harlan (2011) the concentration of limonene was measured. As the tested oil is a complex test substance that contains a range of constituents, the dose rates were prepared as Water Accommodated Fractions (WAF). The analytical measurements were used to establish the stability of the test solutions over time. They should not be used to express the toxicity of the Citrus Oils on the basis of a single substance or sum parameter.