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Environmental fate & pathways

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Biodegradation in water

Biodegradation study was conducted for 14 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test chemical (authoritative databases, 2018). The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 301 C (Ready Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test. Activated sludge was used as a test inoculums for the study. Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of test chemical was determined to be 5.3, 0.4 and < 0% by BOD, O2 consumption, TOC removal, Test material analysis and UV-Vis parameter in 14 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, test chemical is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (2018) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test chemical. If released in to the environment, 14.2% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of test chemical in water is estimated to be 37.5 days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of test chemical in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.183%), indicates that test chemical is not persistent in sediment.

 

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of test chemical in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (2018). If released into the environment, 85.7% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of test chemical in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of test chemical, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

Bioaccumulation study was conducted on test organism Cyprinus carpiofor 6 weeks for evaluating the bioconcentration factor (BCF value) of test chemical (authoritative databases, 2018).The study was performed according to other guideline "Bioaccumulation test of a chemical substance in fish or shellfish" provided in "the Notice on the Test Method Concerning New Chemical Substances" under flow through conditions at a temperature of 25°C and pH range 6.0-8.5, respectively. Cyprinus carpio (length - 8 dimensionless) was used as a test organism for the study. Test chemical nominal conc. used for the study was 1 mg/land 0.1 mg/l, respectively. Range finding study involve theTLm(48h) 335 ppm (w/v) on Rice fish (Oryzias latipes).The bioconcentration factor (BCF value) of test chemical on Cyprinus carpio was determined to be in the range of 0.1-0.5 L/Kg at a conc. of 1 mg/l and 1-7.1 L/Kg at a conc. of 0.1 mg/l, respectively, which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the test chemical is not expected to bioaccumulate in the food chain.

Additional information

Biodegradation in water

Various experimental key and supporting studies of the test chemical were reviewed for the biodegradation end point which are summarized as below:

 

In an experimental key study from authoritative databases (2018),biodegradation experiment was conducted for 14 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test chemical. The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 301 C (Ready Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test. Activated sludge was used as a test inoculums for the study. Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of test chemical was determined to be 5.3, 0.4 and < 0% by BOD, O2 consumption, TOC removal, Test material analysis and UV-Vis parameter in 14 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, test chemical is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Another biodegradation study (from peer reviewed journal GREIM H. et. al., 1994 and handbook, 2008) was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test chemical. The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 302 B (Inherent biodegradability: Zahn-Wellens/EMPA Test). Initial test chemical conc. used for the study was 100 mg/l. The percentage degradation of test chemical was determined to be 7, 6 and 9% by DOC removal parameter after 7, 14 and 28 days, respectively. Thus, based on percentage degradation, test chemical is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

In a supporting study, biodegradation experiment was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test chemical (from peer reviewed journal GREIM H. et. al., 1994 and handbook, 2008). The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 301 D (Ready Biodegradability: Closed Bottle Test). Municipal sludge was used as a test inoculum for the study. Initial test chemical conc. used for the study was 80 mg/l. The percentage degradation of test chemical was determined to be 0% by ThOD parameter after 20 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, test chemical is considered to be not readily biodegradable in water nature.

 

On the basis of above results for test chemical, it can be concluded that the test chemical can be considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (2018) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test chemical. If released in to the environment, 14.2% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of test chemical in water is estimated to be 37.5 days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of test chemical in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.183%), indicates that test chemical is not persistent in sediment.

 

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of test chemical in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (2018). If released into the environment, 85.7% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of test chemical in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of test chemical, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

On the basis of available information, the test chemical can be considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

Experimental study and various predicted data of the test chemical were reviewed for the bioaccumulation end point which are summarized as below:

 

In an experimental key study from authoritative databases (2018), bioaccumulation experiment was conducted on test organism Cyprinus carpio for 6 weeks for evaluating the bioconcentration factor (BCF value) of test chemical. The study was performed according to other guideline "Bioaccumulation test of a chemical substance in fish or shellfish" provided in "the Notice on the Test Method Concerning New Chemical Substances" under flow through conditions at a temperature of 25°C and pH range 6.0-8.5, respectively. Cyprinus carpio (length - 8 dimensionless) was used as a test organism for the study. Test chemical nominal conc. used for the study was 1 mg/land 0.1 mg/l, respectively. Range finding study involve the TLm(48h) 335 ppm (w/v) on Rice fish (Oryzias latipes).The bioconcentration factor (BCF value) of test chemical on Cyprinus carpio was determined to be in the range of 0.1-0.5 L/Kg at a conc. of 1 mg/l and 1-7.1 L/Kg at a conc. of 0.1 mg/l, respectively.

 

In a prediction done using the BCFBAF Program of Estimation Programs Interface was used to predict the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical was estimated to be 3.162 L/kg whole body w.w (at 25 deg C).

 

In an another prediction done by using Bio-concentration Factor module (ACD (Advanced Chemistry Development)/I-Lab predictive module, 2017)), Bio-concentration Factor of the test chemical was estimated to be 1 dimensionless at pH range 1-14, respectively.

 

On the basis of above results for test chemical, it can be concluded that the BCF value of test chemical ranges from 0.1 to 7.1, respectively,which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the test chemical is not expected to bioaccumulate in the food chain.