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Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2013-07-11-2013-10-21
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 211 (Daphnia magna Reproduction Test)
Version / remarks:
02 October 2012
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method C.20 (Daphnia magna Reproduction Test)
Version / remarks:
30 May 2008
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 850.1300 (Daphnid Chronic Toxicity Test)
Version / remarks:
April 1996
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: The following concentrations (based on Potassium cyanate, KOCN) were prepared on each analytical occasion: 0.10 mg/L, 0.25 mg/L, 0.50 mg/L, 1.0 mg/L, 2.5 mg/L, 5.0 mg/L and 10 mg/L.
- Sampling method: UV/VIS-analysis of the test concentration of 15 mg/L was performed after dilution of the sample (factor 2) in Daphnia medium tomeet the linear range of the calibration line.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: Samples (standards and test concentrations) were buffered to pH 4.5 with buffer solution (ammonium
acetate/acetic acid) and 5 mL of each sample were pipetted into a cylindrical glass tube. 1 mL of a freshly prepared solution of anthranilic acid in deionised water (ca. 30 mM) was added, the tubes were stoppered and thoroughly shaken. The tubes were then thermostated for 60 min at 25 °C in a
water bath. In the following reaction st ep 1 was stopped by transferring the samples into an ice bath. To achieve the formulation of benzoylene urea
(reaction step 2), 6.2 mL of 37 % hydrochloric acid (12 N) were added to each tube, leading to a final concentration of > 6 mol/L of hydrochloric acid. The tubes were then shaken and transferred into a thermo reactor (100 °C) for ten minutes.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
- Controls: Were kept in culturing medium
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): No solvent was used.
- Concentration of test medium: Test solutions were prepared from stock solutions of 1.0 g/L of the test item in culturing medium by mechanical dispersion.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Daphniidae)
- Strain/clone: Crustacea, Daphniidae, Clone 5
- Source: German Environmental Ministry, Berlin
- Feeding during test: Yes
- Food type: The animals were fed with algae (Desmodesmus subspicatus)
- Acclimation conditions: The animals were cultivated in an air-conditioned room, during the pre-treatment.
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Post exposure observation period:
None
Hardness:
>=255/L
Test temperature:
Range Finding Test: 19.6-20.1°C
Definitive Test: 21.2-22.7 °C
pH:
Test solutions: 6-9
Dissolved oxygen:
above 3 mg/L
Salinity:
NA
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: 0.10 mg/L, 0.25 mg/L, 0.50 mg/L, 1.0 mg/L, 2.5 mg/L, 5.0 mg/L and 10 mg/L
Measured concentrations: Analysis of the test solutions for potassiun cyanate confirmed that the test solutions were correctly dosed and stable during the exposure period (recoveries from 90.1 to 107 %). Therefore, the concentrations were reported as nominal concentrations.
Details on test conditions:
- Duration: 96 h
- Aeration: None
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): 48 h
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10 animals/test concentration and control
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2 replicates with 5 daphnia
- Test-Medium: According to OECD Guideline
- Light intensity: 1100 Lux
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
Potassium dichromate
Key result
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.1 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Key result
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
0.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Key result
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
2.9 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Key result
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
0.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Details on results:
- Mortality of parent animals: The test item Potassium cyanate caused no mortality at nominal test concentrations of 0.10 to 1.2 mg/L. Mortality of theparent daphnia was 10 % at 2.8 mg Potassium cyanate/L, 30 % at 6.5 mg/L and 100 % at 15.0 mg/L.
- No. of offspring produced per day per female: Dead offspring and aborted eggs were observed occasionally during the test in the control (11 dead
juveniles / 12 aborted eggs), at test concentration of 0.10 mg/L (9 dead juveniles / 11 aborted eggs), at test concentration of 0.5 mg/L (14 dead
juveniles / 9 aborted eggs), at test concentration of 1.2 mg/L (15 dead juveniles / 10 aborted eggs) and at test concentration of 2.8 mg/L (19 dead
juveniles / 10 aborted eggs). The number of dead offspring was increased at test concentration of 6.5 mg/L (28 dead juveniles /4 aborted eggs).
- Type and number of behavioural abnormalities: At test concentration of 6.5 mg/L activity of four of the surviving animals of the Parental generation (P) was slightly reduced compared to the control and activity of another animal of the Parental generation (P) was strongly reduced compared to the
control at the end of the test. As a tendency these daphnia were found in the lower parts of the test vessels. Three animals of the Parental generation
(P) showed discolouration at the end of the test. At test concentration of 15.0 mg/L growth, development and activity of the animals of the Parental
generation (P) were strongly affected. Reproduction did not occur and all daphnia died during 19 days. All animals of the Parental generation (P) showed discolouration and this finding could be observed from day 7 until day 19 of the test. UV/VIS-analysis confirmed that the test solutions were
correctly dosed and that the test concentrations were stable throughout the exposure period. As a consequence the results of the Definitive Test
were based on nominal concentrations. The mortality of the parent animals didn´t exceed 20 % at the end of the test. The mean number of live offspring produced per parent in the control animals surviving at the end of the test was >=60.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
- Results with reference substance valid? YES
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The following results for the Repoduction Test with Daphnia magna to Potassium cyanate were determined:
NOEC: 0.1 mg/L
LOEC: 0.5 mg/L
EC50: 2.9 mg/L
EC10: 0.2 mg/L
Executive summary:

The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of Potassium cyanate on the reproduction output of Daphnia magna in a semi-static test system. The study is based on the procedures indicated in the OECD Guideline 211 (October 2012), in the Commission Regulation (EC) No 440/2008 C.20 (May 2008) and the EPA Guideline OPPTS 850.1300 (April 1996). Young female Daphnia aged less than 24 hours at the start of the test were exposed to aqueous test media containing the test item for 21 days at a range of concentrations. The nominal concentrations were 0.10 mg/L, 0.25 mg/L, 0.50 mg/L, 1.0 mg/L, 2.5 mg/L, 5.0 mg/L and 10 mg/L. Analytical determinations showed that the test item concentrations remained in the range of +/- 20%. In conclusion to this the results are based on nominal item concentrations. The reproduction of the parent animals was statistically significant different from that of the F1 generation. The NOEC was 0.1 mg/L and the LOEC was 0.5 mg/L. The EC50 of the test item was calculated to be 0.81 mg/L, EC10 was calculated to be 0.2 mg/L. The mortality of the parent animals didn´t exceed 20 % at the end of the test. The mean number of live offspring produced per parent in the control animals surviving at the end of the test was >=60.

Description of key information

The long term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates was assessed according to OECD guideline 211, EU method C.20 and OPPTS 850.1300. Daphnids were exposed to the test item under semi-static conditions for 21 days. The nominal concentrations were 0.10 mg/L, 0.25 mg/L, 0.50 mg/L, 1.0 mg/L, 2.5 mg/L, 5.0 mg/L and 10 mg/L. The NOEC was 0.1 mg/L and the LOEC was 0.5 mg/L. The EC50 of the test item was calculated to be 0.81 mg/L, EC10 was calculated to be 0.2 mg/L. 

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Effect concentration:
0.2 mg/L

Additional information

The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of Potassium cyanate on the reproduction output of Daphnia magna in a semi-static test system. The study is based on the procedures indicated in the OECD Guideline 211 (October 2012), in the Commission Regulation (EC) No 440/2008 C.20 (May 2008) and the EPA Guideline OPPTS 850.1300 (April 1996). Young female Daphnia aged less than 24 hours at the start of the test were exposed to aqueous test media containing the test item for 21 days at a range of concentrations. The nominal concentrations were 0.10 mg/L, 0.25 mg/L, 0.50 mg/L, 1.0 mg/L, 2.5 mg/L, 5.0 mg/L and 10 mg/L. Analytical determinations showed that the test item concentrations remained in the range of +/- 20%. In conclusion to this the results are based on nominal item concentrations. The reproduction of the parent animals was statistically significant different from that of the F1 generation. The NOEC was 0.1 mg/L and the LOEC was 0.5 mg/L. The EC50 of the test item was calculated to be 0.81 mg/L, EC10 was calculated to be 0.2 mg/L. The mortality of the parent animals didn´t exceed 20 % at the end of the test. The mean number of live offspring produced per parent in the control animals surviving at the end of the test was >=60.

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