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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods

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Endpoint:
toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 207 (Earthworm, Acute Toxicity Tests)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The soil toxicity test using Eisenia was performed using the protocol of the US EPA (1989a) based on the method proposed by Edwards (1984; Goats and Edwards, 1982) and the OECD guidelines (1993).In addition, wet worm body weights (biomass) were recorded at the beginning and end of each test, as suggested by others (OECD, 1993; ISO, 1993).
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
yes
Test organisms (species):
other: Eisenia andrei
Animal group:
annelids
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Total exposure duration:
14 d
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
LC10
Effect conc.:
ca. 168.1 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 222.4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
ca. 260 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
development
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
ca. 180 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
development
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL
Endpoint:
toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with generally accepted scientific standards and described in sufficient detail
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
ISO 11268-2 (Effects of Pollutants on Earthworms. 2. Determination of Effects on Reproduction)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The soil toxicity test using E. andrei was carried out following the International Standardization Organization 1996 draft method [37] based on Edwards [38] and the OECD guidelines [22]: OECD. 1993. Earthworm, acute toxicity tests. In Guideline of the OECD for Testing Chemical Products. Paris, France.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
yes
Test organisms (species):
other: Eisenia andrei
Animal group:
annelids
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
artificial soil
Total exposure duration:
56 d
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 660 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: adults
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
ca. 89 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: adults
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
ca. 881 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: adults
Duration:
56 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
ca. 110 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: juvenile
Duration:
56 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
ca. 55 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: juvenile
Duration:
56 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 529 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: juvenile
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
other: EC25
Effect conc.:
ca. 495 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: adults
Duration:
56 d
Dose descriptor:
other: EC25
Effect conc.:
ca. 102 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: juvenile
Conclusions:
In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that TNT and RDX have significant sublethal effects on E. andrei reproduction at relatively low concentrations (over eight times less than those causing lethal or growth inhibition effects). These effects should be considered in the context of ecological risk assessment and biotreatment process assessment. Reproduction endpoints (number of juveniles per hatched cocoon, survival of juveniles, inhibition of cocoon production, and hatchability) were found to be sensitive parameters to assess sublethal toxicity compared to growth inhibition and survival of adult earthworms.

Description of key information

14 -d study lowest NOEC: 180 mg/kg

14 -d study lowest LC50: 222.4 mg/kg

42 -d study lowest NOEC: 75 mg/kg

56 -d study lowest NOEC: 55 mg/kg

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Short-term EC50 or LC50 for soil macroorganisms:
222.4 mg/kg soil dw
Long-term EC10, LC10 or NOEC for soil macroorganisms:
55 mg/kg soil dw

Additional information