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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM E729-95 Standard Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 850.1010 (Aquatic Invertebrate Acute Toxicity Test, Freshwater Daphnids)
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study is not in compliance with GLP
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Each treatment was sampled at beginning and end of test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Ceriodaphnia, water flea
- Source: In-house culture
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): <24 h
- Feeding during test: none
- Food type:
- Acclimation: cultured in dilution water
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
91 mg/L
Test temperature:
24.3 °C
pH:
8.0
Dissolved oxygen:
> 6.0 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Control, 31.3, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 mg-B/L
Measured: 0.6, 35, 69, 135, 260, 540 mg-B/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 ml beaker
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 40 ml
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution: none
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: MHRW (moderately hard reconstituted water, per US EPA 2002)
- Total organic carbon: 0 nominal
- Particulate matter:
- Metals:
- Pesticides:
- Chlorine: 0 nominal
- Ca/mg ratio: 1.46 (mass:mass)
- Conductivity:
- Salinity:
- Culture medium different from test medium: Cultured in test medium
- Intervals of water quality measurement: boron, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, hardness at beginning and end of test, temperature and D.O. daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: none
- Photoperiod: 16 L: 8 D

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality (daily)
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
165 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: (95% CI 137-198 mg-B/L)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 calculated using trimmed Spearman-Karber method

Data

Concentration (mg B/L) # dead (out of 20) Percent
0.6 (control) 2 10.0%
35 5 25.0%
69 4 20.0%
135 6 30.0%
260 20 100.0%
535 20 100.0%
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM E729-95 Standard Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 850.1010 (Aquatic Invertebrate Acute Toxicity Test, Freshwater Daphnids)
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study is not in compliance with GLP
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Each treatment was sampled at beginning and end of test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Ceriodaphnia, water flea
- Source: In-house culture
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): <24 h
- Feeding during test: none
- Food type:
- Acclimation: cultured in dilution water
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
89 mg/L
Test temperature:
25.0 °C
pH:
8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
> 6.0 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Control, 31.3, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 mg-B/L
Measured: <0.047, 36, 72, 135, 280, 535 mg-B/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 ml beaker
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 40 ml
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution: none
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: MHRW (moderately hard reconstituted water, per US EPA 2002)
- Total organic carbon: 0 nominal
- Particulate matter:
- Metals:
- Pesticides:
- Chlorine: 0 nominal
- Ca/mg ratio: 1.46 (mass:mass)
- Conductivity:
- Salinity:
- Culture medium different from test medium: Cultured in test medium
- Intervals of water quality measurement: boron, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, hardness at beginning and end of test, temperature and D.O. daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: none
- Photoperiod: 16 L: 8 D

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality (daily)
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
109 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: (95% CI 93-128 mg-B/L)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 calculated using trimmed Spearman-Karber method

Data

Concentration (mg B/L) # dead (out of 20) Percent
<0.047 (control) 1 5.0%
36 2 10.0%
72 2 10.0%
135 15 75.0%
280 20 100.0%
535 20 100.0%
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM E729-95 Standard Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 850.1010 (Aquatic Invertebrate Acute Toxicity Test, Freshwater Daphnids)
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study is not in compliance with GLP
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Each treatment was sampled at beginning and end of test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Ceriodaphnia, water flea
- Source: In-house culture
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): <24 h
- Feeding during test: none
- Food type:
- Acclimation: cultured in dilution water
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
84 mg/L
Test temperature:
25.0 °C
pH:
8.4
Dissolved oxygen:
> 6.0 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Control, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 mg-B/L
Measured: 0.03, 26, 56, 110, 210, 425 mg-B/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 ml beaker
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 40 ml
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution: none
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: MHRW (moderately hard reconstituted water, per US EPA 2002) modified to make pH = 8.5 (increased NaHCO3 to 398.5 mg/L rather than 96 mg/L like standard MHRW)
- Total organic carbon: 0 nominal
- Particulate matter:
- Metals:
- Pesticides:
- Chlorine: 0 nominal
- Ca/mg ratio: 1.46 (mass:mass)
- Conductivity:
- Salinity:
- Culture medium different from test medium: Cultured in test medium
- Intervals of water quality measurement: boron, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, hardness at beginning and end of test, temperature and D.O. daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: none
- Photoperiod: 16 L: 8 D

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality (daily)
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
142 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: (95% CI 130-155 mg-B/L)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 calculated using trimmed Spearman-Karber method

Data

Concentration (mg B/L) # dead (out of 20) Percent
0.03 (control) 0 0.0%
26 0 0.0%
56 0 0.0%
110 2 10.0%
210 20 100.0%
425 20 100.0%
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM E729-95 Standard Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 850.1010 (Aquatic Invertebrate Acute Toxicity Test, Freshwater Daphnids)
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
No data is available on the GLP compliance
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Each treatment was sampled at beginning and end of test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Ceriodaphnia, water flea
- Source: In-house culture
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): <24 h
- Feeding during test: none
- Food type:
- Acclimation: cultured in dilution water
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
90 mg/L
Test temperature:
24.0 °C
pH:
mean = 7.4. control = 7.8, highest boron concentration = 6.8
Dissolved oxygen:
> 6.0 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Control, 31.3, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 mg-B/L
Measured: 0.64, 31, 62, 125, 245, 490 mg-B/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 ml beaker
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 40 ml
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution: none
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: MHRW (moderately hard reconstituted water, per US EPA 2002)
- Total organic carbon:
- Particulate matter:
- Metals:
- Pesticides:
- Chlorine: 0 nominal
- Ca/mg ratio: 5.40
- Conductivity:
- Salinity:
- Culture medium different from test medium: Cultured in test medium
- Intervals of water quality measurement: boron, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, hardness at beginning and end of test, temperature and D.O. daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: none
- Photoperiod: 16 L: 8 D

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality (daily)
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
102 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: (95% CI 82-125 mg-B/L)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 calculated using trimmed Spearman-Karber method

Data

Concentration (mg B/L) # dead (out of 20) Percent
0.64 (control) 2 10.0%
31 2 10.0%
62 9 45.0%
125 9 45.0%
246 20 100.0%
490 20 100.0%
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM E729-95 Standard Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 850.1020 (Gammarid Acute Toxicity Test)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study is not in compliance with GLP
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Each treatment was sampled at beginning and end of test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other aquatic crustacea: Hyalella azteca
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Hyalella, scud, amphipod
- Source: In-house culture
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 7 to 14 d
- Feeding during test: none
- Food type:
- Acclimation:
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
507 mg/L
Test temperature:
22.2 °C
pH:
8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
> 6.0 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Control, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1000 mg-B/L
Measured: 0.13, 71, 145, 280, 555, 1100 mg-B/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 ml beaker
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 40 ml
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution: none
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: RMHRW (reconstituted moderately hard reconstituted water, per Smith et al. 1997. Modified to make hardness = 500 mg/L (added MgSO4, CaSO4 and CaCL2 in same proportions as RMHRW)
- Total organic carbon:
- Particulate matter:
- Metals:
- Pesticides:
- Chlorine: 0 nominal
- Ca/mg ratio: 5.40 (mass:mass)
- Conductivity:
- Salinity:
- Culture medium different from test medium: Cultured in test water
- Intervals of water quality measurement: boron, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, hardness at beginning and end of test, temperature and D.O. daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: none
- Photoperiod: 16 L: 8 D

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality (daily)
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
170 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: (95% CI 121-239 mg-B/L)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 calculated using trimmed Spearman-Karber method

Data

Concentration (mg B/L) # dead (out of 20) Percent
0.13 (control) 1 5.0%
71 4 20.0%
145 9 45.0%
280 13 65.0%
555 20 100.0%
560 20 100.0%
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM E729-95 Standard Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 850.1020 (Gammarid Acute Toxicity Test)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study is not in compliance with GLP
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Each treatment was sampled at beginning and end of test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other aquatic crustacea: Hyalella azteca
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Hyalella, scud, amphipod
- Source: In-house culture
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 7 to 14 d
- Feeding during test: none
- Food type:
- Acclimation: 3 days
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
102 mg/L
Test temperature:
21.0 °C
pH:
7.6
Dissolved oxygen:
> 6.0 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Control, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 mg-B/L
Measured: <0.022, 26, 50, 98, 195, 390 mg-B/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 ml beaker
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 40 ml
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution: none
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: RMHRW (reconstituted moderately hard reconstituted water, per Smith et al. 1997. Modified to make pH = 7.5 (reduced amount of NaHCO3 to 39.8 mg/L rather than 96 mg/L like standard RMHRW)
- Total organic carbon:
- Particulate matter:
- Metals:
- Pesticides:
- Chlorine: 0 nominal
- Ca/mg ratio: 5.40 (mass:mass)
- Conductivity:
- Salinity:
- Culture medium different from test medium: Cultured in RMHRW, acclimated 3-4 days in test water
- Intervals of water quality measurement: boron, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, hardness at beginning and end of test, temperature and D.O. daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: none
- Photoperiod: 16 L: 8 D

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality (daily)
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
127 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: (95% CI 90-178 mg-B/L)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 calculated using trimmed Spearman-Karber method

Data

Concentration (mg B/L) # dead (out of 20) Percent
<0.022 (control) 0 0.0%
26 3 15.0%
50 5 25.0%
98 6 30.0%
195 13 65.0%
390 20 100.0%
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM E2455-06 Standard Guide for Conducting Toxicity Tests with Freshwater Mussels
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study is not in compliance with GLP
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Each treatment was sampled at beginning and end of test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other aquatic mollusc: Lampsilis siliquoidea (Fatmucket mussel)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Fatmucket Mussel
- Source: Missouri State University, Department of Biology
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): less than 5 days
- Feeding during test: none
- Food type:
- Acclimation: 1 day after receipt
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
90 mg/L
Test temperature:
20 °C
pH:
8.0
Salinity:
>6 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Control, 31.25, 65.5, 125, 250, 500 mg-B/L
Measured: 0.33, 34, 72, 140, 260, 524 mg-B/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 ml beaker
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 40 ml
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution: none
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: MHRW (moderately hard reconstituted water, per USEPA 2002)
- Total organic carbon:
- Particulate matter:
- Metals:
- Pesticides:
- Chlorine: 0 nominal
- Ca/mg ratio: 1.46
- Conductivity:
- Salinity:
- Culture medium different from test medium: Mussels shipped in MSU Department of Biology lab water
- Intervals of water quality measurement: boron, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, hardness at beginning and end of test, temperature and D.O. daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: none
- Photoperiod: 16 L: 8 D

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality. Beakers were examined under dissecting scope at end of test. Individuals lacking foot motion or ciliary movement were considered dead.
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
137 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks:
(Microscopic inspection for movement of foot or cilia)
Remarks on result:
other: (95%CI 86 - 220 mg-B/L)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 calculated using trimmed Spearman-Karber method

Data

Concentration (mg B/L) # dead (out of 20) Percent
0.33 (control) 1 5.0%
34 7 35.0%
72 7 35.0%
140 9 45.0%
260 18 90.0%
524 20 100.0%
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM E729-95 Standard Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPP 72-2 (Aquatic Invertebrate Acute Toxicity Test)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study is not in compliance with GLP
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Each treatment was sampled at beginning and end of test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other aquatic arthropod: Allocaphnia vivipara (Insecta, stonefly)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Stonefly, Shortwing snowfly
- Source: Field collection. Stoney Creek, near Muncie, IL, Vermilion Co.
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): Nymph stage; age unknown
- Feeding during test: none
- Food type:
- Acclimation: 2 weeks after collection
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
98 mg/L
Test temperature:
11.2 °C
pH:
7.9
Dissolved oxygen:
> 6.0 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Control, 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 mg-B/L
Measured: <0.02 135, 277, 545, 1100, 2200 mg-B/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 250 ml beaker
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 200 ml
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution: none
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: MHRW (moderately hard reconstituted water, per US EPA 2002)
- Total organic carbon: 0 nominal
- Particulate matter:
- Metals:
- Pesticides:
- Chlorine: 0 nominal
- Ca/mg ratio: 1.46 (mass:mass)
- Conductivity:
- Salinity:
- Culture medium different from test medium: stoneflies collected in Stoney Creek water, but acclimated in MHRW
- Intervals of water quality measurement: boron, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, hardness at beginning and end of test, temperature and D.O. daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: none
- Photoperiod: 16 L: 8 D

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality (daily)
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
476 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: (95% CI 401-566 mg-B/L)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 calculated using trimmed Spearman-Karber method

Data

Concentration (mg B/L) # dead (out of 20) Percent
<0.51 (control) 2 10.0%
135 1 5.0%
277 3 15.0%
545 13 65.0%
1100 20 100.0%
2200 20 100.0%
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM E729-95 Standard Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 850.1010 (Aquatic Invertebrate Acute Toxicity Test, Freshwater Daphnids)
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study is not in compliance with GLP
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Each treatment was sampled at beginning and end of test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Ceriodaphnia, water flea
- Source: In-house culture
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): <24 h
- Feeding during test: none
- Food type:
- Acclimation: cultured in dilution water
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
282 mg/L
Test temperature:
25.0 °C
pH:
8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
> 6.0 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Control, 31.3, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 mg-B/L
Measured: <0.02, 34, 70, 135, 265, 530 mg-B/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 ml beaker
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 40 ml
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution: none
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: MHRW (moderately hard reconstituted water, per US EPA 2002) modified to make hardness = 300 mg/L (added MgSO4 and CaSO4 in same proportions as standard MHRW)
- Total organic carbon: 0 nominal
- Particulate matter:
- Metals:
- Pesticides:
- Chlorine: 0 nominal
- Ca/mg ratio: 1.46 (mass:mass)
- Conductivity:
- Salinity:
- Culture medium different from test medium: Cultured in test medium
- Intervals of water quality measurement: boron, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, hardness at beginning and end of test, temperature and D.O. daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: none
- Photoperiod: 16 L: 8 D

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality (daily)
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
104 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: (95% CI 87-123 mg-B/L)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 calculated using trimmed Spearman-Karber method

Data

Concentration (mg B/L) # dead (out of 20) Percent
<0.02 (control) 2 10.0%
34 0 0.0%
70 3 15.0%
135 15 75.0%
265 20 100.0%
530 20 100.0%
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM E729-95 Standard Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 850.1010 (Aquatic Invertebrate Acute Toxicity Test, Freshwater Daphnids)
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study is not in compliance with GLP
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Each treatment was sampled at beginning and end of test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Ceriodaphnia, water flea
- Source: In-house culture
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): <24 h
- Feeding during test: none
- Food type:
- Acclimation: cultured in dilution water
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
85 mg/L
Test temperature:
25.0 °C
pH:
6.7
Dissolved oxygen:
> 6.0 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Control, 18.75, 37.5, 75, 150, 300 mg-B/L
Measured: 0.03, 21, 44, 84, 170, 335 mg-B/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 ml beaker
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 40 ml
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution: none
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: MHRW (moderately hard reconstituted water, per US EPA 2002) modified to make pH = 6.5 (reduced NaHCO3 to 4 mg/L rather than 96 mg/L like standard MHRW)
- Total organic carbon: 0 nominal
- Particulate matter:
- Metals:
- Pesticides:
- Chlorine: 0 nominal
- Ca/mg ratio: 1.46 (mass:mass)
- Conductivity:
- Salinity:
- Culture medium different from test medium: Cultured in test medium
- Intervals of water quality measurement: boron, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, hardness at beginning and end of test, temperature and D.O. daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: none
- Photoperiod: 16 L: 8 D

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality (daily)
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
91 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: (95% CI 79-106 mg-B/L)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 calculated using trimmed Spearman-Karber method

Data

Concentration (mg B/L) # dead (out of 20) Percent
0.03 (control) 0 0.0%
21 0 0.0%
44 0 0.0%
84 8 40.0%
170 20 100.0%
335 20 100.0%
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM E729-95 Standard Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 850.1020 (Gammarid Acute Toxicity Test)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study is not in compliance with GLP
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Each treatment was sampled at beginning and end of test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other aquatic crustacea: Hyalella azteca
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Hyalella, scud, amphipod
- Source: In-house culture
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 7 to 14 d
- Feeding during test: none
- Food type:
- Acclimation:
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
111 mg/L
Test temperature:
22.0 °C
pH:
8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
> 6.0 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Control, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1000 mg-B/L
Measured: <0.17, 69, 145, 285, 560, 1200 mg-B/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 ml beaker
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 40 ml
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution: none
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: RMHRW (reconstituted moderately hard reconstituted water, per Smith et al. 1997)
- Total organic carbon:
- Particulate matter:
- Metals:
- Pesticides:
- Chlorine: 0 nominal
- Ca/mg ratio: 5.40
- Conductivity:
- Salinity:
- Culture medium different from test medium: Cultured in test medium
- Intervals of water quality measurement: boron, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, hardness at beginning and end of test, temperature and D.O. daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: none
- Photoperiod: 16 L: 8 D

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality (daily)
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
269 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: (95% CI 223-326 mg-B/L)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 calculated using trimmed Spearman-Karber method
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM E729-95 Standard Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 850.1020 (Gammarid Acute Toxicity Test)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study is not in compliance with GLP
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Each treatment was sampled at beginning and end of test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other aquatic crustacea: Hyalella azteca
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Hyalella, scud, amphipod
- Source: In-house culture
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 7 to 14 d
- Feeding during test: none
- Food type:
- Acclimation:
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
291 mg/L
Test temperature:
22.1 °C
pH:
8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
> 6.0 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Control, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1000 mg-B/L
Measured: <0.17, 69, 145, 285, 560, 1200 mg-B/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 ml beaker
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 40 ml
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution: none
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: RMHRW (reconstituted moderately hard reconstituted water, per Smith et al. 1997)
- Total organic carbon:
- Particulate matter:
- Metals:
- Pesticides:
- Chlorine: 0 nominal
- Ca/mg ratio: 5.40
- Conductivity:
- Salinity:
- Culture medium different from test medium: Cultured in test medium
- Intervals of water quality measurement: boron, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, hardness at beginning and end of test, temperature and D.O. daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: none
- Photoperiod: 16 L: 8 D

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality (daily)
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
203 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: (95% CI 170-232 mg-B/L)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 calculated using trimmed Spearman-Karber method
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM E729-95 Standard Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 850.1020 (Gammarid Acute Toxicity Test)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study is not in compliance with GLP
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Each treatment was sampled at beginning and end of test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other aquatic crustacea: Hyalella azteca
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Hyalella, scud, amphipod
- Source: In-house culture
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 7 to 14 d
- Feeding during test: none
- Food type:
- Acclimation:
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
475 mg/L
Test temperature:
22.1 °C
pH:
8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
> 6.0 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Control, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1000 mg-B/L
Measured: <0.17, 69, 145, 285, 560, 1200 mg-B/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 ml beaker
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 40 ml
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution: none
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: RMHRW (reconstituted moderately hard reconstituted water, per Smith et al. 1997)
- Total organic carbon:
- Particulate matter:
- Metals:
- Pesticides:
- Chlorine: 0 nominal
- Ca/mg ratio: 5.40
- Conductivity:
- Salinity:
- Culture medium different from test medium: Cultured in test medium
- Intervals of water quality measurement: boron, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, hardness at beginning and end of test, temperature and D.O. daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: none
- Photoperiod: 16 L: 8 D

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality (daily)
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
188 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: (95% CI 154-230 mg-B/L)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 calculated using trimmed Spearman-Karber method
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP Guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: OECD Guideline 203
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM E729-96
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
The concentration of boron in test solutions was measured in samples collected at 0 and 96 hours of the definitive test. Control and boric acid-fortified samples were also prepared for analysis at each sample period. Ten-milliliter samples were collected from the control and test substance treatment and diluted with reagent water to provide final sample concentrations within the analytical standard concentrations range. QC samples were prepared by fortifying laboratory saltwater with boric acid at concentrations of 10.1 and 232 mg B/L. All samples were directly analyzed using an ICP-MS system.
Details on test solutions:
A 1.14 mg boric acid/mL primary stock solution (equivalent to 200 mg B/L) was prepared at test initiation by diluting 20.5200 g of boric acid into an 18,000 mL volume of dilution water.
Test organisms (species):
other: Litopenaeus vannemei
Details on test organisms:
Marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannemei) were received from Shrimp Improvement Systems (Plantation Key, Florida) on June 4, 2010 and maintained at ABC Laboratories, Inc. The initial supplier provided the species identification. The shrimp were at growth stage PL-8 (post larval) upon receipt. The shrimp were maintained in artificial saltwater at a temperature of approximately 23 to 28°C. The shrimp were gradually acclimated from an initial approximate 35‰ saltwater salinity to a target saltwater salinity of 20 ± 2‰ over a period of 11 days. The animals were fed shrimp food and brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia sp. <48 hours old) during the holding period. Periodic lots of feed were screened for contaminants and records of feed suppliers and the results of the contaminant analyses are on file at ABC Laboratories, Inc. A record of shrimp observations and during the culture period was maintained. No mortalities were recorded during the holding period.
Shrimp used for the definitive test were collected on July 9, 2010. The shrimp were at PL-44 (post larval) stage. Shrimp were fed ad libitum newly hatched brine shrimp (Artemia sp.; approximately 24-48 hours old) nauplii with at least two feedings daily. All treatments and controls received approximately the same ration (i.e., volume) of food. The control shrimp were measured at termination and ranged from 14 to 19 mm in length (mean and standard deviation = 17 ± 1.5 mm) and from 0.0357 to 0.1013 g in blotted wet weight (mean and standard deviation = 0.0767 ± 0.0194g).

During the test shrimp were offered brine shrimp ad libitum daily to reduce predation.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Test temperature:
22.8 to 25.1°C
pH:
7.4 to 8.0
Dissolved oxygen:
5.7 to 7.4 mg/L (76 to 99% saturation)
Salinity:
19.0 to 19.9‰
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal Concentrations: 0 (control), 13, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg B/L
Mean Measured Concentrations as added Boron: 0 (dilution-water control), 14.0, 27.2, 55.8, 103, and 215 mg B/L
Mean Measured Concentrations as Total Boron: 2.23 (dilution-water control), 16.2, 29.5, 58.0, 105, and 217 mg B/L
Details on test conditions:
The dilution water was a laboratory saltwater prepared by adding a commercial sea salt mix (Crystal Sea Marinemix; Marine Enterprises International, Inc. Baltimore, Maryland) to laboratory freshwater at a target salinity 20 ± 2‰. The laboratory freshwater consists of well water blended with well water that was demineralized by reverse osmosis to yield water with a total hardness ranging from 130 to 160 mg CaCO3/L. The dilution water was heated and aerated prior to its delivery into the diluter system. As the dilution water entered the diluter system, it passed through a particulate filter and an ultraviolet sterilizer.

The test chambers utilized during the range-finding test were 1-L glass beakers containing approximately 800 mL of control or test solution. In the definitive test, the test chambers were 10-L glass jars containing approximately 8 L of control or test solution. Animal size during the definitive test required larger test chambers to avoid biological loading problems. The test chambers in both tests were covered with plastic Petri dishes. The test chambers were maintained at 21 to 25°C and within a range of 2°C in a temperature-controlled water bath. Fluorescent lighting was maintained on a 16-hour light and 8-hour dark photoperiod with 30-minute simulated dawn and dusk periods. The measured light intensity at the termination of the definitive test ranged from 658 to 710 lux as measured with a LI-COR Model LI-189 light meter equipped with a photometric sensor.

Ten shrimp were added to test chambers for the dilution water control and each test substance treatment. Shrimp were impartially added to a set of labeled containers with each container representing one treatment. One individual was added to each labeled container starting with the control then proceeding from the low to high test substance treatments. The individuals within each container were then released from each container into the corresponding test chamber. Observations were made daily (± 1 hour of test initiation) for mortality and sublethal effects. The initial loading rate was 0.0959 grams of shrimp per liter of test solution which meets the loading rate criterion.
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
130 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
boron
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: added boron (110 - 154) (Salinity: 19.0 to 19.9‰)
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
103 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
boron
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: added boron (Salinity: 19.0 to 19.9‰)
Details on results:
After 96 hours of exposure, mortality was 0, 0, 0, 0, 20, and 100% in the 0 (dilution-water control), 13, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg B/L nominal treatments. Based on mean measured total boron concentrations, the 24- and 48-hour LC50 was estimated to be >217 mg B/L, the highest concentration tested, as determined by the trimmed Spearman-Karber method. The 72-hour LC10 and LC50 values, based on mean measured total boron concentrations, were estimated to be 106 mg B/L (95% confidence limits of 50.5 and 136 mg B/L) and 163 mg B/L (95% confidence limits of 124 and 221 mg B/L), respectively, as determined by the probit method. The 96-hour LC50, based on mean measured total boron concentrations, was estimated to be 132 mg B/L with 95% confidence limits of 112 and 156 mg B/L as determined by the untrimmed Spearman-Karber method. The slope of the 96-hour concentration-response could not be calculated. There were no sublethal effects noted in the control or test substance treatments during the definitive test. The 96-hour NOEC and LOEC values were 105 and 217 mg B/L, respectively, based on total measured boron concentrations.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
All statistical analyses were performed with SAS software. Estimates of LC50 values and their 95% confidence limits were calculated using the probit method and Spearman-Karber method (trimmed or untrimmed). When the P value for Goodness of Fit was >0.05 and there was no other evidence of questionable convergence, the probit method was selected for reporting. When this criterion was not achieved, the Spearman-Karber method was selected for reporting. The NOEC was determined by using a Fisher’s exact test. A Hochberg adjustment was used to control the experiment wise error rate for the Fisher’s test at the same alpha level.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Based on mean measured total boron concentrations, the 24- and 48-hour LC50 was estimated to be >217 mg B/L, the highest concentration tested. The 72-hour LC10 and LC50 values, based on mean measured total boron concentrations, were estimated to be 106 mg B/L (95% confidence limits of 50.5 and 136mgB/L) and 163 mg B/L (95% confidence limits of 124 and 221 mg B/L), respectively. The 96-hour LC50, based on mean measured total boron concentrations, was estimated to be 132 mg B/L with 95% confidence limits of 112 and 156 mg B/L. The slope of the 96-hour concentration-response could not be calculated. There were no sublethal effects noted in the control or test substance treatments during the definitive test. The 96-hour NOEC and LOEC values were 105 and 217 mg B/L, respectively, based on nominal concentrations. The 96-hour NOEC and LOEC values were 103 and 215 mg B/L, respectively, based on added concentrations.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM E2455-06 Standard Guide for Conducting Toxicity Tests with Freshwater Mussels
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study is not in compliance with GLP
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Each treatment was sampled at beginning and end of test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other aquatic mollusc: Megalonaias nervosa (washboard mussel)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Washboard Mussel
- Source: Genoa Fish Hatchery, Wisconsin
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): less than 5 days
- Feeding during test: none
- Food type:
- Acclimation: 1 day after receipt
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
88 mg/L
Test temperature:
20.7 °C
pH:
8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
> 6 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Control, 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 mg-B/L
Measured: <0.02, 37, 74, 140, 275, 544 mg-B/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 ml beaker
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 40 ml
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution: none
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: MHRW (moderately hard reconstituted water, per USEPA 2002)
- Total organic carbon:
- Particulate matter:
- Metals:
- Pesticides:
- Chlorine: 0 nominal
- Ca/mg ratio: 1.46
- Conductivity:
- Salinity:
- Culture medium different from test medium: Mussels shipped in Genoa Fish Hatchery water
- Intervals of water quality measurement: boron, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, hardness at beginning and end of test, temperature and D.O. daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: none
- Photoperiod: 16 L: 8 D

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality. Beakers were examined under dissecting scope at end of test. Individuals lacking foot motion or ciliary movement were considered dead.
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 544 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks:
(Microscopic inspection for movement of foot or cilia)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 calculated using trimmed Spearman-Karber method

Data

Concentration (mg B/L) # dead (out of 20) Percent
<0.02 (control) 0 0.0%
37 0 0.0%
74 2 10.0%
140 3 15.0%
275 4 20.0%
544 1 5.0%
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM E729-95 Standard Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 850.1010 (Aquatic Invertebrate Acute Toxicity Test, Freshwater Daphnids)
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study is not in compliance with GLP
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Each treatment was sampled at beginning and end of test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Ceriodaphnia, water flea
- Source: In-house culture
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): <24 h
- Feeding during test: none
- Food type:
- Acclimation: cultured in dilution water
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
469 mg/L
Test temperature:
25.0 °C
pH:
8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
> 6.0 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Control, 31.3, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 mg-B/L
Measured: <0.02, 35, 70, 140, 265, 530 mg-B/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 ml beaker
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 40 ml
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution: none
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: MHRW (moderately hard reconstituted water, per US EPA 2002) modified to make hardness = 500 mg/L (added MgSO4 and CaSO4 in same proportions as standard MHRW)
- Total organic carbon: 0 nominal
- Particulate matter:
- Metals:
- Pesticides:
- Chlorine: 0 nominal
- Ca/mg ratio: 1.46 (mass:mass)
- Conductivity:
- Salinity:
- Culture medium different from test medium: Cultured in test medium
- Intervals of water quality measurement: boron, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, hardness at beginning and end of test, temperature and D.O. daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: none
- Photoperiod: 16 L: 8 D

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality (daily)
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
93 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: (95% CI 77-114 mg-B/L)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 calculated using trimmed Spearman-Karber method

Data

Concentration (mg B/L) # dead (out of 20) Percent
<0.02 (control) 2 10.0%
35 2 10.0%
70 4 20.0%
140 17 85.0%
265 20 100.0%
530 20 100.0%
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM E729-95 Standard Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 850.1010 (Aquatic Invertebrate Acute Toxicity Test, Freshwater Daphnids)
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study is not in compliance with GLP
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Each treatment was sampled at beginning and end of test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Ceriodaphnia, water flea
- Source: In-house culture
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): <24 h
- Feeding during test: none
- Food type:
- Acclimation: cultured in dilution water
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
87 mg/L
Test temperature:
24.9 °C
pH:
7.6
Dissolved oxygen:
> 6.0 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Control, 18.75, 37.5, 75, 150, 300 mg-B/L
Measured: 0.03, 19, 44, 88, 160, 315 mg-B/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 ml beaker
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 40 ml
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution: none
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: MHRW (moderately hard reconstituted water, per US EPA 2002) modified to make pH = 7.5 (reduced NaHCO3 to 39.8 mg/L rather than 96 mg/L like standard MHRW)
- Total organic carbon: 0 nominal
- Particulate matter:
- Metals:
- Pesticides:
- Chlorine: 0 nominal
- Ca/mg ratio: 1.46 (mass:mass)
- Conductivity:
- Salinity:
- Culture medium different from test medium: Cultured in test medium
- Intervals of water quality measurement: boron, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, hardness at beginning and end of test, temperature and D.O. daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: none
- Photoperiod: 16 L: 8 D

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality (daily)
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
115 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: (95% CI 108-122 mg-B/L)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 calculated using trimmed Spearman-Karber method

Data

Concentration (mg B/L) # dead (out of 20) Percent
0.03 (control) 0 0.0%
19 0 0.0%
44 0 0.0%
88 1 5.0%
160 20 100.0%
335 20 100.0%
     
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM E729-95 Standard Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 850.1020 (Gammarid Acute Toxicity Test)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study is not in compliance with GLP
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Each treatment was sampled at beginning and end of test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other aquatic crustacea: Hyalella azteca
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Hyalella, scud, amphipod
- Source: In-house culture
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 7 to 14 d
- Feeding during test: none
- Food type:
- Acclimation:
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
302 mg/L
Test temperature:
21.5 °C
pH:
8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
> 6.0 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Control, 31.3, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 mg-B/L
Measured: <0.02, 36, 74, 140, 285, 560 mg-B/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 ml beaker
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 40 ml
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution: none
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: RMHRW (reconstituted moderately hard reconstituted water, per Smith et al. 1997. Modified to make hardness = 300 mg/L (added MgSO4, CaSO4 and CaCL2 in same proportions as RMHRW)
- Total organic carbon:
- Particulate matter:
- Metals:
- Pesticides:
- Chlorine: 0 nominal
- Ca/mg ratio: 5.40 (mass:mass)
- Conductivity:
- Salinity:
- Culture medium different from test medium: Cultured in test water
- Intervals of water quality measurement: boron, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, hardness at beginning and end of test, temperature and D.O. daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: none
- Photoperiod: 16 L: 8 D

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality (daily)
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
151 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: (95% CI 110-207mg-B/L)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 calculated using trimmed Spearman-Karber method

Data

Concentration (mg B/L) # dead (out of 20) Percent
<0.02 (control) 1 5.0%
36 2 10.0%
74 6 30.0%
140 9 45.0%
285 13 65.0%
560 20 100.0%
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM E729-95 Standard Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 850.1020 (Gammarid Acute Toxicity Test)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study is not in compliance with GLP
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Each treatment was sampled at beginning and end of test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other aquatic crustacea: Hyalella azteca
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Hyalella, scud, amphipod
- Source: In-house culture
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 7 to 14 d
- Feeding during test: none
- Food type:
- Acclimation: 3 days
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
103 mg/L
Test temperature:
21.0 °C
pH:
8.4
Dissolved oxygen:
> 6.0 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Control, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 mg-B/L
Measured: <0.027, 27, 53, 100, 205, 395 mg-B/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 ml beaker
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 40 ml
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution: none
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: RMHRW (reconstituted moderately hard reconstituted water, per Smith et al. 1997. Modified to make pH = 8.5 (increased amount of NaHCO3 to 398 mg/L rather than 96 mg/L like standard RMHRW)
- Total organic carbon:
- Particulate matter:
- Metals:
- Pesticides:
- Chlorine: 0 nominal
- Ca/mg ratio: 5.40 (mass:mass)
- Conductivity:
- Salinity:
- Culture medium different from test medium: Cultured in RMHRW, acclimated 3-4 days in test water
- Intervals of water quality measurement: boron, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, hardness at beginning and end of test, temperature and D.O. daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: none
- Photoperiod: 16 L: 8 D

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality (daily)
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
64 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: (95% CI 41-101 mg-B/L)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 calculated using trimmed Spearman-Karber method

Data

Concentration (mg B/L) # dead (out of 20) Percent
<0.027 (control) 2 10.0%
27 5 25.0%
53 9 45.0%
100 13 65.0%
205 15 75.0%
395 20 100.0%
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM E729-95 Standard Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 850.1020 (Gammarid Acute Toxicity Test)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study is not in compliance with GLP
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Each treatment was sampled at beginning and end of test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other aquatic crustacea: Hyalella azteca
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Hyalella, scud, amphipod
- Source: In-house culture
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 7 to 14 d
- Feeding during test: none
- Food type:
- Acclimation:
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
106 mg/L
Test temperature:
22.2 °C
pH:
8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
> 6.0 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Control, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1000 mg-B/L
Measured: <0.17, 69, 145, 285, 560, 1200 mg-B/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 ml beaker
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 40 ml
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution: none
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: RMHRW (reconstituted moderately hard reconstituted water, per Smith et al. 1997)
- Total organic carbon:
- Particulate matter:
- Metals:
- Pesticides:
- Chlorine: 0 nominal
- Ca/mg ratio: 5.40
- Conductivity:
- Salinity:
- Culture medium different from test medium: Cultured in test medium
- Intervals of water quality measurement: boron, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, hardness at beginning and end of test, temperature and D.O. daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: none
- Photoperiod: 16 L: 8 D

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality (daily)
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
107 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: (95% CI 70-163 mg-B/L)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 calculated using trimmed Spearman-Karber method

Data

Concentration (mg B/L) # dead (out of 20) Percent
<0.17 (control) 0 0.0%
69 7 35.0%
145 12 60.0%
285 20 100.0%
560 20 100.0%
1200 20 100.0%
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM E2455-06 Standard Guide for Conducting Toxicity Tests with Freshwater Mussels
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study is not in compliance with GLP
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Each treatment was sampled at beginning and end of test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other aquatic mollusc: Legumia recta (Black sandshell mussel)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Black sandshell Mussel
- Source: Missouri State University, Department of Biology
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): less than 5 days
- Feeding during test: none
- Food type:
- Acclimation: 1 day after receipt
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
91 mg/L
Test temperature:
19.5 °C
pH:
8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
> 8.0 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Control, 31.25, 65.5, 125, 250, 500 mg-B/L
Measured: <0.02, 33, 64, 130, 255, 510 mg-B/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 ml beaker
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 40 ml
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution: none
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: MHRW (moderately hard reconstituted water, per USEPA 2002)
- Total organic carbon:
- Particulate matter:
- Metals:
- Pesticides:
- Chlorine: 0 nominal
- Ca/mg ratio: 1.46
- Conductivity:
- Salinity:
- Culture medium different from test medium: Mussels shipped in MSU Department of Biology lab water
- Intervals of water quality measurement: boron, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, hardness at beginning and end of test, temperature and D.O. daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: none
- Photoperiod: 16 L: 8 D

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality. Beakers were examined under dissecting scope at end of test. Individuals lacking foot motion or ciliary movement were considered dead.
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
147 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks:
(Microscopic inspection for movement of foot or cilia)
Remarks on result:
other: (95%CI 87 - 246 mg-B/L)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 calculated using trimmed Spearman-Karber method

Data

Concentration (mg B/L) # dead (out of 20) Percent
<0.02 (control) 0 0.0%
33 6 30.0%
64 6 30.0%
130 10 50.0%
255 11 of 19 57.9%
510 20 100.0%
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM E729-95 Standard Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study is not in compliance with GLP
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Each treatment was sampled at beginning and end of test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other aquatic mollusc: Sphaerium simile (grooved fingernail clam)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Grooved fingernail clam
- Source: Field collected, Spring Creek, near Loda, Illinois (Iroquois County)
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): about 2 weeks post-release from adults
- Feeding during test: none
- Food type:
- Acclimation: Adults held in test water for 2 weeks. Juveniles released from adults into test water.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
105 mg/L
Test temperature:
21.1 °C
pH:
7.9
Dissolved oxygen:
> 6.0 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Control, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 mg-B/L
Measured: <0.51, 28, 55, 113, 227, 447 mg-B/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 150 ml beaker
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 120 ml
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution: none
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: MHRW (moderately hard reconstituted water, per USEPA 2002)
- Total organic carbon:
- Particulate matter:
- Metals:
- Pesticides:
- Chlorine: 0 nominal
- Ca/mg ratio: 1.46
- Conductivity:
- Salinity:
- Culture medium different from test medium: Clams collected in Spring Creek water but acclimated to US EPA MHRW
- Intervals of water quality measurement: boron, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, hardness at beginning and end of test, temperature and D.O. daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: none
- Photoperiod: 16 L: 8 D

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality. Beakers were examined under dissecting scope at end of test. Individuals lacking foot motion or ciliary movement were considered dead.
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 447 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks:
(Microscopic inspection for movement of foot or cilia)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 calculated using trimmed Spearman-Karber method

Data

Concentration (mg B/L) # dead (out of 20) Percent
<0.51 (control) 0 0.0%
28 0 0.0%
55 0 0.0%
113 0 0.0%
227 0 0.0%
447 0 0.0%
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM E729-95 Standard Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 850.1020 (Gammarid Acute Toxicity Test)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study is not in compliance with GLP
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Each treatment was sampled at beginning and end of test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other aquatic crustacea: Hyalella azteca
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Hyalella, scud, amphipod
- Source: In-house culture
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 7 to 14 d
- Feeding during test: none
- Food type:
- Acclimation:
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
102 mg/L
Test temperature:
21.0 °C
pH:
6.6
Dissolved oxygen:
> 6.0 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Control, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 mg-B/L
Measured: <0.022, 27, 51, 105, 195, 395 mg-B/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 ml beaker
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 40 ml
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution: none
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: RMHRW (reconstituted moderately hard reconstituted water, per Smith et al. 1997. Modified to make pH = 6.5 (reduced amount of NaHCO3 to 4 mg/L rather than 96 mg/L like standard RMHRW)
- Total organic carbon:
- Particulate matter:
- Metals:
- Pesticides:
- Chlorine: 0 nominal
- Ca/mg ratio: 5.40 (mass:mass)
- Conductivity:
- Salinity:
- Culture medium different from test medium: Cultured in RMHRW, acclimated 3-4 days in test water
- Intervals of water quality measurement: boron, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, hardness at beginning and end of test, temperature and D.O. daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: none
- Photoperiod: 16 L: 8 D

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality (daily)
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
104 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: (95% CI 78-140 mg-B/L)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 calculated using trimmed Spearman-Karber method

Data

Concentration (mg B/L) # dead (out of 20) Percent
<0.022 (control) 1 5.0%
27 0 0.0%
51 5 25.0%
105 10 50.0%
195 15 75.0%
395 18 90.0%

Description of key information

Short-term effects on freshwater invertebrates ranged from 64 to >544 mg B/L. Adequate short-term LC50 of 130 mg B/L was found for the marine shrimp L. vannamei.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information