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Endpoint:
additional ecotoxicological information
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
other information

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Immunomodulation of Mytilus hemocytes by individual estrogenic chemicals and environmentally relevant mixtures of estrogens: In vitro and in vivo studies
Author:
Canesi L, Lorusso LC, Ciacci C, Betti M, Rocchi M, Pojana G, Marcomini A
Year:
2007
Bibliographic source:
Aqua Toxicol 81: 36-44 (2007)

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Canesi et al. (2007) investigated the effects of chemicals on several hemocyte parameters (lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), phagocytosis, lysozyme) of the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam.. Bivalves are sessile, filter-feeding molluscs, representing a primary target for estrogenic chemicals due to their high bioaccumulation and low biotransformation potential for contaminants. Mussels 4-5 cm long were sampled from an unpolluted area and kept 1-3 days in static tanks containing artificial sea water at 16°C. Sea water was changed daily. Hemolymph was extracted from the posterior adductor muscle of 8-20 mussels (depending on the experiment) and hemocyte monolayers were prepared according to Canesi et al. 2002. Hemocytes were incubated at 16°C for 30 min with different endocrine disrupting chemicals. Lysosomal membrane stability which proved to be the most sensitive effect parameter was evaluated by the Neutral Red Retention time assay.
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent

Results and discussion

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Canesi et al. (2007) investigated the effects of chemicals on several hemocyte parameters (lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), phagocytosis, lysozyme) of the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam.. The NOEC and LOEC (LMS) for benzophenone were determined to be 0.01 and 0.1 µM, respectively. The EC50 for benzophenone exposure was determined to be 8.535 µM (for comparison the results obtained for E2 (17ß-estradiol): NOEC, LOEC, EC50: 0.001, 0.005, 0.013 µM). The estradiol equivalency factor (EEF=EC50(E2)/EC50(benzophenone) was calculated to 1.56 x 10E-3.
Executive summary:

Canesi et al. (2007) investigated the effects of chemicals on several hemocyte parameters (lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), phagocytosis, lysozyme) of the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam.. Bivalves are sessile, filter-feeding molluscs, representing a primary target for estrogenic chemicals due to their high bioaccumulation and low biotransformation potential for contaminants. Mussels 4-5 cm long were sampled from an unpolluted area and kept 1-3 days in static tanks containing artificial sea water at 16°C. Sea water was changed daily. Hemolymph was extracted from the posterior adductor muscle of 8-20 mussels (depending on the experiment) and hemocyte monolayers were prepared according to Canesi et al. 2002. Hemocytes were incubated at 16°C for 30 min with different endocrine disrupting chemicals. Lysosomal membrane stability which proved to be the most sensitive effect parameter was evaluated by the Neutral Red Retention time assay. The NOEC and LOEC (LMS) for benzophenone were determined to be 0.01 and 0.1 µM, respectively. The EC50 for benzophenone exposure was determined to be 8.535 µM (for comparison the results obtained for E2 (17ß-estradiol): NOEC, LOEC, EC50: 0.001, 0.005, 0.013 µM). The estradiol equivalency factor (EEF=EC50(E2)/EC50 (benzophenone) was calculated to 1.56 x 10E-3.