Registration Dossier

Manufacture, use & exposure

Uses at industrial sites

Documentsopen allclose all

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC4: Use of non-reactive processing aid at industrial site (no inclusion into or onto article)
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC6a: Use of intermediate
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC6b: Use of reactive processing aid at industrial site (no inclusion into or onto article)
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8a: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at non-dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 14: Tabletting, compression, extrusion, pelletisation, granulation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Product category used:
PC 19: Intermediate
PC 20: Products such as ph-regulators, flocculants, precipitants, neutralisation agents
PC 21: Laboratory chemicals
Sector of end use:
SU 8: Manufacture of bulk, large scale chemicals (including petroleum products)
SU 9: Manufacture of fine chemicals
SU 10: Formulation [mixing] of preparations and/or re-packaging (excluding alloys)
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC6d: Use of reactive process regulators in polymerisation processes at industrial site (inclusion or not into/onto article)
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
Process category (PROC):
PROC 6: Calendering operations
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 14: Tabletting, compression, extrusion, pelletisation, granulation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Product category used:
PC 32: Polymer preparations and compounds
Sector of end use:
SU 11: Manufacture of rubber products
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 7: Industrial spraying
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8a: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at non-dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 10: Roller application or brushing
Process category (PROC):
PROC 13: Treatment of articles by dipping and pouring
Product category used:
PC 9a: Coatings and paints, thinners, paint removes
PC 18: Ink and toners
Sector of end use:
SU 10: Formulation [mixing] of preparations and/or re-packaging (excluding alloys)
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported >=10tonnes/year per registrant
Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Use of oxygen scavengers for polyolefins ES1 STP Discharge
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC6b: Use of reactive processing aid at industrial site (no inclusion into or onto article)
Name of activity / technique:
Use of oxygen scavengers for polyolefins ES2 Direct Discharge
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC6b: Use of reactive processing aid at industrial site (no inclusion into or onto article)
Name of activity / technique:
Use of oxygen scavengers for polyolefins ES3 Marine Discharge
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC6b: Use of reactive processing aid at industrial site (no inclusion into or onto article)
Contributing activity / technique for workers
Name of activity / technique:
Use of formulation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Product category used:
PC 32: Polymer preparations and compounds
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported >=10tonnes/year per registrant
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Industrial use of cobalt(2+) propionate for the production of other catalysts containing cobalt compounds
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC6a: Use of intermediate
Contributing activity / technique for workers
Name of activity / technique:
Use of cobalt(2+) propionate for the production of other catalysts containing cobalt compounds
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
PROC 8a: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at non-dedicated facilities
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
PROC 14: Tabletting, compression, extrusion, pelletisation, granulation
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Sector of end use:
SU 8: Manufacture of bulk, large scale chemicals (including petroleum products)
SU 9: Manufacture of fine chemicals
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC4: Use of non-reactive processing aid at industrial site (no inclusion into or onto article)
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8a: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at non-dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Product category used:
PC 20: Products such as ph-regulators, flocculants, precipitants, neutralisation agents
PC 21: Laboratory chemicals
Sector of end use:
SU 10: Formulation [mixing] of preparations and/or re-packaging (excluding alloys)
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported >=10tonnes/year per registrant
Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Production and industrial use of plastics, UPR, PET and FRP as a catalyst, oxygen scavenger and/or pigment ES1 STP Discharge
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Name of activity / technique:
Production and industrial use of plastics, UPR, PET and FRP as a catalyst, oxygen scavenger and/or pigment ES2 Direct Discharge
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Name of activity / technique:
Production and industrial use of plastics, UPR, PET and FRP as a catalyst, oxygen scavenger and/or pigment ES3 Marine Discharge
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Raw material handling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
PROC 15: Use as laboratory reagent
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Name of activity / technique:
Handling of liquids
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Name of activity / technique:
Further processing
Process category (PROC):
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
PROC 14: Tabletting, compression, extrusion, pelletisation, granulation
Name of activity / technique:
Final handling of massive objects
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
Handling of liquid UP resin
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
PROC 10: Roller application or brushing
PROC 15: Use as laboratory reagent
Name of activity / technique:
Spraying of liquid UP resins
Process category (PROC):
PROC 7: Industrial spraying
Name of activity / technique:
Cleaning & Maintenance
Process category (PROC):
PROC28: Manual maintenance (cleaning and repair) of machinery
Product category used:
PC 32: Polymer preparations and compounds
Sector of end use:
SU 12: Manufacture of plastics products, including compounding and conversion
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported >=10tonnes/year per registrant
Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Production and use as rubber adhesion agent ES1 STP Discharge
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Name of activity / technique:
Production and use as rubber adhesion agent ES2 Direct Discharge
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Name of activity / technique:
Production and use as rubber adhesion agent ES3 Marine Discharge
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Raw material handling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Name of activity / technique:
Kneading (mixing)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
Name of activity / technique:
Shaping
Process category (PROC):
PROC 6: Calendering operations
PROC 14: Tabletting, compression, extrusion, pelletisation, granulation
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
Finishing and shipping
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
Cleaning & Maintenance
Process category (PROC):
PROC28: Manual maintenance (cleaning and repair) of machinery
Product category used:
PC 1: Adhesives, sealants
PC 32: Polymer preparations and compounds
Sector of end use:
SU 11: Manufacture of rubber products
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
Process category (PROC):
PROC 6: Calendering operations
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8a: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at non-dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 14: Tabletting, compression, extrusion, pelletisation, granulation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Product category used:
PC 1: Adhesives, sealants
PC 32: Polymer preparations and compounds
Sector of end use:
SU 11: Manufacture of rubber products
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
Process category (PROC):
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
Process category (PROC):
PROC 7: Industrial spraying
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8a: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at non-dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 10: Roller application or brushing
Process category (PROC):
PROC 14: Tabletting, compression, extrusion, pelletisation, granulation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 15: Use as laboratory reagent
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Product category used:
PC 32: Polymer preparations and compounds
Sector of end use:
SU 10: Formulation [mixing] of preparations and/or re-packaging (excluding alloys)
SU 12: Manufacture of plastics products, including compounding and conversion
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC6b: Use of reactive processing aid at industrial site (no inclusion into or onto article)
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8a: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at non-dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Product category used:
PC 20: Products such as ph-regulators, flocculants, precipitants, neutralisation agents
PC 21: Laboratory chemicals
Sector of end use:
SU 10: Formulation [mixing] of preparations and/or re-packaging (excluding alloys)
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC6b: Use of reactive processing aid at industrial site (no inclusion into or onto article)
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8a: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at non-dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Product category used:
PC 32: Polymer preparations and compounds
Sector of end use:
SU 10: Formulation [mixing] of preparations and/or re-packaging (excluding alloys)
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC6a: Use of intermediate
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8a: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at non-dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 14: Tabletting, compression, extrusion, pelletisation, granulation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Product category used:
PC 19: Intermediate
Sector of end use:
SU 8: Manufacture of bulk, large scale chemicals (including petroleum products)
SU 9: Manufacture of fine chemicals
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported >=10tonnes/year per registrant
Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Use of coatings, paints and inks using cobalt(2+) propionate as drier or pigment ES1 STP Discharge
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Name of activity / technique:
Use of coatings, paints and inks using cobalt(2+) propionate as drier or pigment ES2 Direct Discharge
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Name of activity / technique:
Use of coatings, paints and inks using cobalt(2+) propionate as drier or pigment ES3 Marine Discharge
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Preparation and industrial application of coatings, paints and inks
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
PROC 10: Roller application or brushing
PROC 13: Treatment of articles by dipping and pouring
Name of activity / technique:
Spraying of coatings, paints and inks
Process category (PROC):
PROC 7: Industrial spraying
Product category used:
PC 9a: Coatings and paints, thinners, paint removes
PC 18: Ink and toners
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported >=10tonnes/year per registrant
Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Use in the catalyst industry
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC4: Use of non-reactive processing aid at industrial site (no inclusion into or onto article)
Name of activity / technique:
Use in the catalyst industry
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC6b: Use of reactive processing aid at industrial site (no inclusion into or onto article)
Contributing activity / technique for workers
Name of activity / technique:
Use of catalyst
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
PROC 8a: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at non-dedicated facilities
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Product category used:
PC 20: Products such as ph-regulators, flocculants, precipitants, neutralisation agents
PC 21: Laboratory chemicals
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR