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PBT assessment

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PBT assessment: overall result

Reference
Name:
Cinnamyl alcohol
Type of composition:
boundary composition of the substance
State / form:
liquid
Reference substance:
Composition 1
PBT status:
the substance is not PBT / vPvB
Justification:

Classification of Cinnamyl alcohol for effects in the environment:

 

The chemical Cinnamyl alcohol (CAS no. 104-54-1) is used as a flavouring agent in foods and as a fragrance agent in perfumes, cosmetics etc. The aim was to assess whether the PBT criterion within Annex XIII was fulfilled for Cinnamyl alcohol. The PBT criterion was herein assessed based on experimental data in conjunction with standardized environmental fate models. Here follows a description of the PBT assessment.

 

Persistence assessment

The tested substance does not fulfil the P criterion within Annex XIII based on the assessment that here follows:

 

Biotic degradation

Biodegradation study was conducted for 28-days following the OECD guideline 301 D to determine the ready biodegradability of the test chemical. The study was performed at a temperature of 20°C. The test system included control, test item and reference item. Polyseed were used as a test inoculum for the study. The concentration of test and reference item (Sodium Benzoate) chosen for both the study was 4 mg/L, while that of inoculum was 32 ml/l. OECD mineral medium was used for the study. ThOD (Theoretical oxygen demand) of test and reference item was determined by calculation. % degradation was calculated using the values of BOD and ThOD for test item and reference item. The % degradation of procedure control (reference item) was also calculated using BOD & ThOD and was determined to be 75.3%.  Degradation of Sodium Benzoate exceeds 46.38% on 7 days & 61.44% on 14th day. The activity of the inoculum was thus verified and the test can be considered as valid. The BOD28 value of test chemical was observed to be 1.35 mgO2/mg. ThOD was calculated as 2.62 mgO2/mg. Accordingly, the % degradation of the test item after 28 days of incubation at 20 ± 1°C according to Closed Bottle test was determined to be 51.52%. Based on the results, the test item, under the test conditions, was considered to be inherently biodegradable in nature.

 

Thus, based on the available information, it indicates that chemical Cinnamyl alcohol was considered to be inherently biodegradable in water and thus likely to be not persistent (P) in nature.

 

Environmental fate

According to the fugacity model levels III, the most likely environmental fate for this test chemical is soil (i.e.estimated to 71.3%). In soil,Cinnamyl alcoholwas expected to have moderate mobility based upon a Log KOC value of 2.068 ± 0.007 at 25°C determined as per the OECD test guideline 121. The half-life in soil (30 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in soil and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

 

If released in to the environment, 28.3 of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III in EPI suite version 4.1 (2017). However, the half-life (15 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low.

 

Moreover, its persistent characteristic is only observed in the sediment compartment but Fugacity modelling shows that sediment is not an important environmental fate (less than 1% i.e reported as 0.134% when estimated by EPI Suite version 4.1).

 

Hence it has been concluded that chemical Cinnamyl alcohol is not persistent in nature.

 

Bioaccumulation assessment

The tested substance does not fulfil the B criterion within Annex XIII based on the assessment that here follows:

 

The octanol water partition coefficient of the test chemical was determined to be ranges from 1.452 to 1.95, respectively, which is less than the threshold of 4.5. If this chemical is released into the aquatic environment, there should be a low risk for the chemical to bioaccumulate in fish and food chains.

 

Toxicity assessment

The tested substance does not fulfil the T criterion within Annex XIII based on the assessment that here follows:

 

Mammals

The tested chemical is regarded to be not classified for carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reprotoxicity, Further, there is no evidence of chronic toxicity, as identified by the classifications STOT (repeated exposure), category 1(oral, dermal, inhalation of gases/vapours, inhalation of dust/mist/fume) or category 2 (oral, dermal, inhalation of gases/vapours, inhalation of dust/mist/fume).

 

Aquatic organisms

All of the available short-term eco-toxicity data for fish, invertebrates and algae for the substance Cinnamyl alcohol indicates the LC50/EC50 value to be in the range 7.7 to 19.7 mg/L, respectively. These value suggest that the substance is likely to be hazardous to aquatic organisms at environmentally relevant concentrations and hence, considered to be classified in ‘aquatic chronic category 2’ as per the CLP regulation.

 

There are no available long-term toxicity evaluations for chemical Cinnamyl alcohol. By speculation, long-term NOEC for aquatic organisms were not expected for the substance at concentration below 0.01 mg/L based on the data mentioned above.

 

The chemical was therefore not considered as hazardous to aquatic environments as per the criteria set out in Annex XIII.

 

Conclusion

Based on critical, independent and collective evaluation of information summarized herein, the tested compound does not fulfil the P, B and T criterion and has therefore not been classified as a PBT compound within Annex XIII.