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EC number: 244-168-5
CAS number: 21041-95-2
There was a significantly increased
mortality for cancers of the pharynx, non-malignant diseases of the
respiratory system and non-malignant diseases of the genitourinary
system. Non-significantly increased SMRs were shown for lung cancer and
cancer of the prostate.
Table 1: Mortality of male workers from a
nickel-cadmium battery factory, 1947-2000 (Sorahan and Esmen, 2004)
Summary of the main results
Cause of death
Cancers of the pharynx
Lung and bronchus cancer
Diseases of respiratory system
Diseases of genito-urinary system
Estimated cumulative cadmium exposures were
not related to risks of lung cancer or risks of chronic obstructive
pulmonary diseases, even when exposure histories were lagged first by
10, then by 20 y.
Table 2: Rate ratios (relative risks) for
lung cancer and for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in relation to
cumulative exposure to cadmium (Sorahan and Esmen, 2004)
Cumulative exposure to cadmium (µg/m3/y)
Lagged by 10 years
Lagged by 20 years
> or = 4800
P value for trend
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
> or = 4800
study by Sorahan and Esmen (2004), an update of the previous mortality
Sorahan, 1997, investigate the mortality from lung cancer for the period
1947-2000 in workers first employed in the period of 1947-1975 and
having a minimum of 12 months employment at the factory in relation to
cumulative exposure to cadmium hydroxide. Hence, this report
incorporates quantitative cadmium exposure into updated follow up data
from thestudy of nickel-battery workers (Sorahan, 1987).
reconstruction was based on estimation of cumulative cadmium exposure
(detailed job histories) by consideration of all available measurements
(area measurement: 1957-1992, personal sampling: 1964-1992). Based on
serial mortality rates for the general population ofand, significantly
increased mortality was shown for cancers of the pharynx (Observed: 4,
Expected: 0.7, SMR: 559, 95% CI: 152-1432). Non-significantly increased
SMRs were shown for lung cancer (Observed: 45, Expected: 40.7, SMR: 111,
95% CI: 81-148) and cancer of the prostate (Observed: 9, Expected: 7.5,
SMR: 116, 95% CI: 53-221). Estimated cumulative cadmium exposure was not
related to risks of lung cancer, even when exposure histories were
lagged first by 10, then by 20 y.
concluded by the authors, the study findings do not support the
hypotheses that cadmium compounds are human lung carcinogens.
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