Use of this information is subject to copyright laws and may require the permission of the owner of the information, as described in the ECHA Legal Notice.
EC number: 211-334-3
CAS number: 638-38-0
Manganese is a natural occurring
element that is found in rock, soil, and water. It exists in the
environment only in its insoluble compounds, especially as oxides or
carbonates, or as mixed in form of oxides/carbonates. It is ubiquitous
in the environment and comprises about 0.1% of the Earth crust. Crustal
rock is a major source of manganese found in the atmosphere. Ocean
spray, forest fires, vegetation, and volcanic activity are other major
natural atmospheric sources of manganese. Important sources of dissolved
manganese are anaerobic environments where particulate manganese oxides
are reduced, the direct reduction of particulate manganese oxides in
aerobic environments, the natural weathering of Mn(II)-containing
minerals, and acidic environments. Manganese exists in the aquatic
environment in two main forms: Mn(II) and Mn(IV). The Mn(II) exist as
Hexahydrate. Transition between these two forms occurs via oxidation and
reduction reactions that may be abiotic or microbially mediated.
The environmental chemistry
of manganese is largely governed by pH and redox conditions; Mn(II)
dominates at lower pH and redox potential, with an increasing proportion
of colloidal manganese oxyhydroxides above pH 5.5 in non-dystrophic
waters. Chemical factors controlling sedimentary manganese cycling are
the oxygen content of the overlying water, the penetration of oxygen
into the sediments, the benthic organic carbon supply. Manganese in soil
can migrate as particulate matter to air or water, or soluble manganese
compounds can be leached from the soil. In soils manganese solubility is
determined by two variables: pH and redox potential.
The major pool of manganese in soils
originates from crustal sources, with other sources including direct
atmospheric deposition, wash-off from plant and other surfaces, leaching
from plant tissues, and the shedding or excretion of materials such as
leaves, dead plant and animal excrement.
Manganese concentration in air tend to
be lowest in remote location (about 0.5-14 ng/ m³) on average, higher in
rural areas (40 ng/m³ on average), and still higher in urban areas
(about 65-166 ng/m³ on average ). Manganese concentrations in air tend
to be highest in source-dominant areas, where values can reach
8,000ng/m3 ). Annual averages of manganese concentrations may rise to
200-300 ng/m³ in air near foundries and to over 500 ng/m³ in air near
ferro- and silico-manganese industries.
a transition metal and therefore it cannot degraded in the environment.
It can change its oxidation value states, it can form different
compounds but it cannot be degraded.
the acetate-ion /the acetic acid can be transformed by biotic and by
abiotic processes in the environment. By photodegradation (sunlight /OH
as sensitizer) ca. 50% is degraded in 21 day) Under aerobic conditions
(OECD Guideline 301D) acetic acid is “ready biodegradable”. In air
acetic acid will be converted to carbon dioxide, in microbes the acetic
acid forms “activated acetate” and takes part in the normal metabolism
and at the end it forms carbon dioxide, too.
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
Welcome to the ECHA website. This site is not fully supported in Internet Explorer 7 (and earlier versions). Please upgrade your Internet Explorer to a newer version.
Do not show this message again