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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1989-04-17-1989-04-19
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OTS 797.1300 (Aquatic Invertebrate Acute Toxicity Test, Freshwater Daphnids)
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report):
- Physical state: clear liquid
- Analytical purity: 99.90%
- Lot/batch No.: 5-0590-88
- Storage condition of test material: stored at room temperature
- other: supplier Rohm and Haas
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Sampling times: 0 and 48 hrs
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
A primary stock solution of 10.1 mg/mL MMA was prepared. A proportional diluter system was used to provide dilutions of test substance to the test chambers.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Source: Daphnia magna were obtained from an in-house daphnid culture which has been maintained by ABC since 1977. The primary culture was obtained from the Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory (CNFRL), Columbia, Missouri, in 1977. A trace of the daphnid strain indicated that CNFRL acquired their culture from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Fish Control Laboratory, Lacrosse, Wisconsin, in 1960 and they obtained their culture from Pennsylvania State University in 1954.
- Age at study initiation: < 24 hours
- Method of breeding: All daphnids were held in a temperature controlled area at 20 (±2.0) °C. The lighting was 50-70 footcandles on a 16-hour daylight photoperiod, with 30 minute dawn and dusk transition periods. During the holding period, the daphnids were fed a suspension of algae (Selenastrum capricornutum) supplemented with Tetramin/cereal leaves/yeast suspension.
- Feeding during test: daphnids were not fed during the 48-hour study
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
no
Hardness:
170 - 174 mg/L
Test temperature:
20 °C
pH:
7.4 - 7.6
Dissolved oxygen:
7.3 - 7.7
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Test concentrations (nominal): 7.2, 14, 30, 60, and 120 mg/L
Test concentrations (measured): 5.2, 11, 23, 48 and 100 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type (delete if not applicable): coverd with50 mesh stainless steelscreen to prevent to prevent escape of daphnids.
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: one liter glass beakers
- Type of flow-through: A half-liter proportional diluter system described by Mount and Brungs (4), utilizing a Hamilton® Micro Lab 420 syringe dispenser, was used for the intermittent introduction of dilution water and methyl methacrylate into the test chambers.
- Renewal rate of test solution: 5.7 times per day
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: The dilution water used in this study was a blend of R.O. (reverse osmosis) water and ABC well water.
- Total organic carbon: <1.0 ppm
- Suspended solids: 0.30 ppm
- Chlorine: <0.05 ppm
- Alkalinity: 184 - 205 mg/L as CaCO3
- Ca/mg ratio:
- Conductivity: 325 - 420 µMhos/cm
- Intervals of water quality measurement:


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light, 8 hours darkness and with 30 minutes transition periods
- Light intensity: Cool white fluorescent light bulbs which has historically provided a 50-70 ft. c. intensity.


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED:
All concentrations were observed at 4, 24 and 48-hours for immobilization and other abnormal effects such as surfacing, erratic movement and/or
daphnids laying on the bottom.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Range finding study
- Test concentrations: 0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: After 48-hours no mortality or abnormal effects were observed in any of the test concentrations. The temperature ranged from 19-21°C during the range-finding test.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
48 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95% C.I. = 48 - 100 mg/L
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
69 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
EC50 (4 h) >100 mg/L
EC50 (24 h) = 76 mg/L (calculated from percentage of immobilization)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Statistical analysis of the concentration VS. effect data (immobility) was obtained by employing a computerized LC50 (EC50) program developed by Stephan et al. (1978). This program calculated the EC50 statistic and its 95-percent confidence limits using the binomial, the moving average, and the probit tests, if data permitted. Three different methods of analyzing the data were used since no one method of analysis is appropriate for all possible sets of data that may be obtained. The method of calculation selected for presentation in this report was that which gave the narrowest confidence limits for the EC50 although all three models are valid. However, if no immobility occurred or if a dose response could not be demonstrated over a reasonable range(<37 to >63%) and EC50 and/or its 95-percent confidence limits could not be calculated.

Percent immobilization during the acute toxicity test of methyl methacrylate

 

Percent Immobilization

Mean measured concentration

[mg/l]

4 hrs

24 hrs

48 hrs

Control

0

0

0

5.2

0

0

0

11

0

0

0

23

0

0

0

48

0

0

0

100

0

87.5

100

Conclusions:
In a guideline study according EPA OTS 797.1300, the toxicity to Daphnia magna of MMA was tested in nominal concentrations of 7.2, 14, 30, 60 and 120 mg/l (corresponding to measured concentrations calculated from analytical sampling at 0 and 48 hrs of 5.2, 11, 23, 48 and 100 mg/l). No immobilization was observed in concentrations up to 48 mg/l, 100 % immobilization occured at 100 mg/l. EC 50 Daphnia magna (48h) was calculated to be 69 mg/l
Executive summary:

In a guideline study according EPA OTS 797.1300, the toxicity to Daphnia magna of MMA was tested in nominal concentrations of 7.2, 14, 30, 60 and 120 mg/l (corresponding to measured concentrations calculated from analytical sampling at 0 and 48 hrs of 5.2, 11, 23, 48 and 100 mg/l). No immobilization was observed in concentrations up to 48 mg/l, 100 % immobilization occured at 100 mg/l. EC 50 Daphnia magna (48h) was calculated to be 69 mg/l. NOEC was 48 mg/l.

Description of key information

Methyl methacrylate is of  moderate toxicity to Daphnia magna (EC50 = 69 mg/L) and is regarded as harmful to aquatic invertebrates.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Effect concentration:
69 mg/L

Additional information

Methyl methacrylate was testd in a flow through test in analytical concentrations up to 100 mg/l.

No immobilization was observed in concentrations up to 48 mg/l, 100 % immobilization occured at 100 mg/l. EC 50 Daphnia magna (48h) was calculated to be 69 mg/l.