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EC number: 233-162-8
CAS number: 10049-04-4
In a poisonning accident study, 12 female
patients and one male were exposed unintentionally by inhalation to
The clinical evaluation was performed on the
patients 5 years after a documented occupational exposure to chlorine
dioxide associated with a leak in a pipe of a water purification system.
Biopsies were taken of the nasal mucosa in patients with reactive upper
airway dysfunction syndrome and in some cases reactive airways syndrome
developing in temporal association with a chlorine dioxide exposure, to
see if a histological basis for the persistent rhinitis and sensitivity
to chemical irritants could be determined. Biopsies were also taken from
Nasal examination was abnormal in all
patients and included injection, telangectasia, paleness, cobblestoning,
edema and thick mucous. Depression, fatigue and dyspnea were reported.
Nasal biopsies obtained from symptomatic
subjects showed a spectrum of changes ranging from congestion and edema
and mild inflammation to severe inflammation. In the majority of cases
there was chronic inlflammation with lymphocytes and plasma cells
present within the lamina propria. Reactive epithelial changes were seen
in the overlying mucosa and submucosal glands. Nerve fibres were present
mainly in the lamina proparia, mostly concentrated around blood vessels.
Inflammation ratings of exposed individuals
were higher than for the non-exposed individuals. The study suggests a
mechanism by which ongoing low level exposures perpetuate airway
inflammation after inducing toxic inhalation.
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