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EC number: 233-162-8
CAS number: 10049-04-4
Chlorine dioxide reacts rapidly in aqueous solution degrading to chlorite and chlorate as dominant species under environmental conditions. In the absence of oxidisable substances, and in the presence of pH > 9, chlorine dioxide dissolves in water and decomposes with the slow formation of chlorite and chlorate ions.
According to the TNsG on Data Requirements for Active Substances and
Biocidal Products, and REACH Guidance, further tests may be required if
there is still a concern for the terrestrial compartment.
The direct exposure of the terrestrial compartment to chlorine dioxide
is highly unlikely.
Three routes or release to the soil compartment are possible: via deposition
of manure, via deposition of aerosols from cooling towers, or via
deposition of sewage sludge.
As described in the data waiver for anaerobic degradation, the active
substance, chlorine dioxide is highly reactive and it will readily react
with organic matter and microorganisms present in manure, in aerosols
and sewage sludge, and will be reduced to chloride via the
transient intermediate chlorite.
The ESD for disinfection of animal houses assumes that up to six
disinfection treatments are performed during a year, with the manure
itself being stored for a total of one year prior to use. On this basis
there will be sufficient contact time between the chlorine dioxide and
the manure to ensure that complete degradation to chloride ion occurs.
Hence there will be no release to soil via manure.
With regards to exposure via sewage sludge, the vast quantity of
organic matter and metal ions dissolved in the aqueous phase in the STP
would ensure the complete conversion of chlorine dioxide to chloride via
the transient intermediate chlorite. Hence there will be no release
to soil via sewage sludge. Chlorite in aerosols deposited in soil
would also be expected to degrade to chloride on contact with soil.
Further studies on terrestrial non target organisms are therefore
Besides, according to the TNsG on Data Requirements for Active
Substances and Biocidal Products, and REACH Guidance, for some product
types, direct and/or indirect exposure for mammals is possible and some
tests with mammals may be required in rare cases on the basis of concern
for severe risk for the terrestrial environment. There will be no direct
or indirect exposure to mammals. Therefore, an acute oral toxicity test
in mammals is not required.
Chlorine dioxide react easily and rapidly generating chlorite and
chlorate as dominant species. In the absence of oxidisable substances,
and in the presence of pH > 9, chlorine dioxide dissolves in water and
decomposes with the slow formation of chlorite and chlorate ions.
No key study was found in Chlorite for above-ground organisms. However,
five key studies valid were found in Sodium chlorate for Typhlodromus
pyri Scheuten (Kelly 2004, according to IOBC method), worker honey
bees Apis mellifera L. (Wilkins 2003, according to EPPO Bulletin,
OECD Guideline 213 and 214), Aleochara bilineata Gyllenhal (Kelly
2005, according to IOBC method), Chrysoperia carnea and Aphidius
rhopalosiphi De Stefani-Perez (Kelly 2003, according to IOBC method).
Sodium chlorate studies demonstrated a LR50 based on mortality at
84.4 kg/ha, greater than 250.95 kg/ha and greater than 250.60 kg/ha of
sodium chlorate (the three studies of Kelly for Typhlodromus
pyri Scheuten, Chrysoperia carnea and Aphidius rhopalosiphi De
Stefani-Perez, respectively). Besides, the study of Wilkins (2003)
revealed a NOEC (48h) and a LD50 (48h) >= 116 µg/bee of sodium chlorate
for the acute contact toxicity test and >= 75 µg/bee of sodium chlorate
for the acute oral toxicity test. Finally, the study of Kelly (2005)
shows a NOEC based on mortality at 250 kg/ha for sodium chlorate.
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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