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Genetic toxicity in vitro

Description of key information

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for Alcohols, C13-15. The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with S9 metabolic activation system. Alcohols, C13-15 was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

 

Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: gene mutation
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
Data is from OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.3 and the supporting QMRF report has been attached
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: Refer below principle
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Prediction is done using OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.3, 2018
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material: Alcohols, C13-15
- IUPAC name: Alcohols, C13-15
- Molecular formula:C13H280 + C15H32O
- Molecular weight: 208.78 g/mole
- Substance type: Organic
- Physical state: Liquid
Target gene:
Histidine
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102
Details on mammalian cell type (if applicable):
Not applicable
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not specified
Cytokinesis block (if used):
No data
Metabolic activation:
with
Metabolic activation system:
S9 metabolic activatoin system
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
No data
Vehicle / solvent:
No data
Untreated negative controls:
not specified
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
not specified
True negative controls:
not specified
Positive controls:
not specified
Positive control substance:
not specified
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
No data
Rationale for test conditions:
No data
Evaluation criteria:
Prediction is done considering a dose dependent increase in the number of revertants/plate
Statistics:
No data
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium, other: TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Metabolic activation:
with
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
not specified
Vehicle controls validity:
not specified
Untreated negative controls validity:
not specified
Positive controls validity:
not specified
Additional information on results:
No data
Remarks on result:
no mutagenic potential (based on QSAR/QSPR prediction)

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: "Gene mutation"
Estimation method: Takes highest mode value from the 8 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

((((((((((("a" or "b" )  and ("c" and ( not "d") )  )  and ("e" and ( not "f") )  )  and ("g" and ( not "h") )  )  and ("i" and ( not "j") )  )  and ("k" and ( not "l") )  )  and ("m" and ( not "n") )  )  and ("o" and ( not "p") )  )  and ("q" and ( not "r") )  )  and "s" )  and ("t" and "u" )  )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Long chain alcohols by OECD HPV Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Class 1 (narcosis or baseline toxicity) by Acute aquatic toxicity classification by Verhaar (Modified)

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.4

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Flavonoids OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Quinones and Trihydroxybenzenes OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation >> Dicarbonyl compounds OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR AN2 >> Thioacylation via nucleophilic addition after cysteine-mediated thioketene formation OR AN2 >> Thioacylation via nucleophilic addition after cysteine-mediated thioketene formation >> Haloalkenes with Electron-Withdrawing Groups OR Non-covalent interaction OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Acridone, Thioxanthone, Xanthone and Phenazine Derivatives OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Naphthalenediimide Derivatives OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Quinones and Trihydroxybenzenes OR Non-specific OR Non-specific >> Incorporation into DNA/RNA, due to structural analogy with  nucleoside bases    OR Non-specific >> Incorporation into DNA/RNA, due to structural analogy with  nucleoside bases    >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR Radical OR Radical >> Generation of ROS by glutathione depletion (indirect) OR Radical >> Generation of ROS by glutathione depletion (indirect) >> Haloalkanes Containing Heteroatom OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Acridone, Thioxanthone, Xanthone and Phenazine Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Flavonoids OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Quinones and Trihydroxybenzenes OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR Radical >> ROS formation after GSH depletion (indirect) OR Radical >> ROS formation after GSH depletion (indirect) >> Haloalcohols OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Naphthalenediimide Derivatives OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic substitution after carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic substitution after carbenium ion formation >> Monohaloalkanes OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic substitution on diazonium ion OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic substitution on diazonium ion >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> Alkylation by epoxide metabolically formed after E2 reaction OR SN2 >> Alkylation by epoxide metabolically formed after E2 reaction >> Haloalcohols OR SN2 >> Alkylation by epoxide metabolically formed after E2 reaction >> Monohaloalkanes OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation >> Haloalkenes with Electron-Withdrawing Groups OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Naphthalenediimide Derivatives OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom >> Haloalkanes Containing Heteroatom OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom >> Monohaloalkanes OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation >> Quinoline Derivatives OR SN2 >> DNA alkylation OR SN2 >> DNA alkylation >> Vicinal Dihaloalkanes OR SN2 >> Internal SN2 reaction with aziridinium and/or cyclic sulfonium ion formation (enzymatic) OR SN2 >> Internal SN2 reaction with aziridinium and/or cyclic sulfonium ion formation (enzymatic) >> Vicinal Dihaloalkanes OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom >> Haloalkanes Containing Heteroatom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom >> Quinoline Derivatives by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.4

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Michael addition OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation of Heterocyclic Ring Systems OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation of Heterocyclic Ring Systems >> Furans OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Arenes OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Hydroquinones OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Methylenedioxyphenyl OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Polycyclic (PAHs) and heterocyclic (HACs) aromatic hydrocarbons-Michael addition OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition >> Alpha, beta- unsaturated ketones OR Schiff base formers OR Schiff base formers >> Chemicals Activated by P450 to Glyoxal  OR Schiff base formers >> Chemicals Activated by P450 to Glyoxal  >> Ethanolamines (including morpholine) OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation >> Allyl benzenes OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation >> Polycyclic (PAHs) and heterocyclic (HACs) aromatic hydrocarbons-SN1 OR SN1 >> Iminium Ion Formation OR SN1 >> Iminium Ion Formation >> Aliphatic tertiary amines OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Secondary aromatic amine OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Tertiary aromatic amine OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Epoxidation of Aliphatic Alkenes OR SN2 >> Epoxidation of Aliphatic Alkenes >> Halogenated polarised alkenes OR SN2 >> Epoxidation of Aliphatic Alkenes >> Phenoxy polarised alkenes OR SN2 >> SN2 at an sp3 Carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at an sp3 Carbon atom >> Aliphatic halides by DNA binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Non binder, non cyclic structure by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Moderate binder, OH grooup OR Non binder, impaired OH or NH2 group OR Non binder, MW>500 OR Non binder, without OH or NH2 group OR Strong binder, OH group OR Weak binder, OH group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by Protein binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as SN2 OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at a sp2 carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at a sp2 carbon atom >> Polarised alkenes with a halogen leaving group OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> alpha-Halocarbonyls by Protein binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by Protein binding by OASIS v1.4

Domain logical expression index: "l"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as SNVinyl OR SNVinyl >> SNVinyl at a vinylic (sp2) carbon atom OR SNVinyl >> SNVinyl at a vinylic (sp2) carbon atom >> Vinyl type compounds with electron withdrawing groups  by Protein binding by OASIS v1.4

Domain logical expression index: "m"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by in vivo mutagenicity (Micronucleus) alerts by ISS

Domain logical expression index: "n"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as alpha,beta-unsaturated aliphatic alkoxy group OR H-acceptor-path3-H-acceptor by in vivo mutagenicity (Micronucleus) alerts by ISS

Domain logical expression index: "o"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as (!Undefined)Group All Lipid Solubility < 0.01 g/kg AND (!Undefined)Group C Surface Tension > 62 mN/m by Skin irritation/corrosion Exclusion rules by BfR

Domain logical expression index: "p"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as (!Undefined)Group CN Lipid Solubility < 0.4 g/kg OR (N/A) OR Exclusion rules not met OR Group All log Kow > 9 OR Group C Aqueous Solubility < 0.0001 g/L OR Group C Melting Point > 55 C OR Group C Vapour Pressure < 0.0001 Pa OR Group CN Aqueous Solubility < 0.1 g/L OR Group CN log Kow > 4.5 by Skin irritation/corrosion Exclusion rules by BfR

Domain logical expression index: "q"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Inclusion rules not met by Skin irritation/corrosion Inclusion rules by BfR

Domain logical expression index: "r"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Halogenated alkanes  OR Ketones by Skin irritation/corrosion Inclusion rules by BfR

Domain logical expression index: "s"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Not bioavailable by Lipinski Rule Oasis ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "t"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is >= 5.12

Domain logical expression index: "u"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is <= 5.93

Conclusions:
Alcohols, C13-15 was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.
Executive summary:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for Alcohols, C13-15. The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with S9 metabolic activation system. Alcohols, C13-15 was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

 

Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (negative)

Genetic toxicity in vivo

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

Gene mutation in vitro:

Prediction model based estimation and data from read across chemicals has been reviewed to determine the mutagenic nature of Alcohols, C13-15. The studies are as mentioned below:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for Alcohols, C13-15. The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with and without S9 metabolic activation system. Alcohols, C13-15 was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

The predicted data is further supported by the data from read across chemicals as mentioned below:

Salmonella/microsome test (Spot test) was performed by Blevins and Taylor (Journal of Environmental Science and Health . Part A: Environmental Science and Engineering, 1982) to determine the mutagenic nature of 90 -100% structurally similar read across chemical cetyl alcohol (RA CAS no 36653 -82 -4; IUPAC name: 1-Hexadecanol). The study was performed using Salmonella typhimurium LT2 - hisTA98, hisTA100, hisTA1535, hisTA1537, and hisTA1538 with and without S9 metabolic activation system. The chemical as used at dose levels of 50µg/plate and the plates were incubated for 2 days. The plates were observed for a dose dependent increase in the number of revertants/plate. Negative and positive control plates were also made with the test plates. The negative controls were used to determine the spontaneous reversion rate to prototrophy for each strain, and to determine the effect of the solvents on the reversion rates.Cetyl alcohol did not induce gene mutation inSalmonella typhimurium LT2 - hisTA98, hisTA100, hisTA1535, hisTA1537, and hisTA1538 both in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.  

In another study by Prival et al (Mutation Research, 1991), Gene mutation toxicity study was performed to determine the mutagenic nature of 80 -90% structurally similar read across chemical Stearyl alcohol (RA CAS no 112 -92 -5; IUPAC name: 1-Octadecanol). Plate incorporation assay was performed and the test chemical was used at dose level of 0.033, 0.10, 0.33, 1.0, 3.3 or 10 mg per plate.All platings were performed in duplicate and all tests were.The plates were observed for a dose dependent increase in the number of revertants/plate. Concurrent positive control chemicals were also included in the study. Test results were considered valid only if the positive control compounds induced increases in mutant counts to at least twice background. Stearyl alcohol failed to induce mutation in S. typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and TA1538 and E. coli strain WP2 both in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

Based on the data available for the target chemical and its read across, the test chemical Alcohols, C13 -15 does not exhibit gene mutation in vitro. Hence the test chemical is not likely to classify as a gene mutant as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on the data available for the target chemical and its read across, the test chemical Alcohols, C13 -15 (CAS no 90604 -31 -2) does not exhibit gene mutation in vitro. Hence the test chemical is not likely to classify as a gene mutant as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.