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Environmental fate & pathways

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Stability:

Hydrolysis:

According to annex VIII column 2 of REACH regulation the study scientifically not necessary because substance 2-hydroxy-p-toluic acid (CAS no. 50 -85 -1) is readily biodegradable.

Biodegradation:

Biodegradation in water

Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2017) was run to predict the biodegradation potential of the test compound 2-hydroxy-p-toluic acid (CAS no. 50 -85 -1) in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that chemical 2-hydroxy-p-toluic acid is expected to be readily biodegradable.

readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (CAS No. 50 -85 -1). If released in to the environment, 26 % of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of test chemical 2-Hydroxy-4- methylbenzoic acid in water is estimated to be 15 days (360 hrs). The half-life (15 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of test chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid in sediment is estimated to be 135 days (3240 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.0853 %), indicates that test chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid is not persistent in sediment.  

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of test chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (CAS No. 50 -85 -1) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 73.7% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of test chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid in soil is estimated to be 30 days (720 hrs). Based on this half-life value of test chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

Bioaccumulation: aquatic/sediment

BCFBAF model (v3.01) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) was used to predict the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (CAS No. 50 -85 -1). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid was estimated to be 3.162 L/kg whole body w.w (at 25 deg C) which does not exceed the bio concentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid is not expected to bioaccumulate in the food chain.

Adsorption/desorption

KOCWIN model (v2.00) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) was used to predict the soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of test chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (CAS No. 50 -85 -1). The soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid was estimated to be 34.81 L/kg (log Koc=1.5417)  by means of MCI method (at 25 deg C). This Koc value indicates that the substance 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid has a low sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have moderate migration potential to ground water.

Additional information

Stability:

Hydrolysis:

According to annex VIII column 2 of REACH regulation the study scientifically not necessary because substance 2-hydroxy-p-toluic acid (CAS no. 50 -85 -1) is readily biodegradable.

Biodegradation:

Biodegradation in water:

One predicted data study and one experimental study for target chemical and five experimental studies for its structurally similar read across chemical have been conducted for biodegradation in water endpoint and results of all the studies are summarized below.

The predicted data study for target chemical was done by using Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2017) to estimate the biodegradation potential of the test compound 2-hydroxy-p-toluic acid (CAS no. 50 -85 -1) in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that chemical 2-hydroxy-p-toluic acid is expected to be readily biodegradable.

Another study was experimental study done from peer reviewed journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology, (Kathleen L. Londry et. al; 1997) and secondary source (Kathleen Louise Londry, 1997) in this study biodegradation experiment was conducted for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (CAS no. 50-85-1) under anaerobic conditions at a temperature of 32°C .Desulfotomaculumsp. strain Groll (bacteria) was used as a test inoculum obtained from the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen, Braunschweig, Germany (catalog no. 7213). Initial test substance conc. used in the study was 76.07 mg/l (500µM).The organism was cultivated in an anaerobic medium but with only 1 mM sulfide as the reductant. Strain Groll was incubated at 32°C in the dark without shaking. Cultures were maintained by periodically adding substrate (250mM) and by repeated transfer. The cultures were amended by addition of substrates from neutralized, sterile, anoxic stock solutions. Test was performed in an anaerobic chamber which was sealed with butyl rubber stoppers and aluminum crimp seals. The headspace of each vessel was then changed to N2-CO2 (80 : 20). The degradation of test substance was tested in the anaerobic medium and inoculated (10% vol/vol) with a culture of strain Groll. Degradation was monitored by following the depletion of test compound over time. Sterile controls were also setup during the study. Samples of culture fluid were withdrawn under strictly anaerobic and aseptic conditions and stored frozen until analyzed. Concentrations of test compound 2 -Hydroxy-4 -methylbenzoic acid were determined by HPLC. The percentage degradation of test substance 2 -Hydroxy-4 -methylbenzoic acid was determined to be 0% by HPLC parameter. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 2 -Hydroxy-4 -methylbenzoic acid is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Next experimental study was done for read across chemical salicylic acid (CAS no. 69-72-7) from Journal of Hazardous Materials (1986) in this study the biodegradability of read across chemical salicylic acid was determined, by using electrolytic respirometer in aerobic condition. The study was calculated for 14 days, at temperature 20 °C in neutral medium (pH-7).The biodegradability of read across chemical salicylic acid was calculated, as the 50% of salicylic acid was biodegrades in 7.5 to 9.5 hrs only. Result indicated that the read across chemical salicylic acid is readily biodegradable in water.

 

Another experimental study was done from authoritative database (J check, 2016) in this study biodegradation experiment was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance Aspirin (CAS no. 50-78-2). Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial read across substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. At the beginning of the test, the pH of the test solution was adjusted. The read across substance was hydrolyzed to form Salicylic acid and Acetic acid in (Water + Test Substance) systems. The percentage degradation of read across substance was determined to 86%, 97% and 100% by BOD, TOC removal and HPLC parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, Aspirin is considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

Next experimental study was done for read across substance 2-methoxybenzoic acid (CAS no. 579-75-9) from Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry journal (2003) in this study biodegradation experiment was conducted for 5 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance 2-methoxybenzoic acid(CAS no. 579-75-9).The study was performed using the standard iodometric titration method. River water was used as a test inoculum obtained from Jilin section in the Songhua river. Temperature of the water sample was 15-20°C, pH 6.8 – 7.0 and dissolved oxygen was ranged between 7.8 – 9.0 mg/l. Initial read across substance conc. used in the study was 2 mg/l on the basis of ThOD. The test chemical was added to 250 ml BOD bottles. One milliliter of diluted water sample was cultivated in 15 ml of medium at 31°C for 24 h, and the number of colonies was enumerated as the bacterial counts. The bottles were then filled to capacity with the water sample, sealed and incubated for 5 days at 20 ± 1°C.Two replicates were conducted for read across chemical and read across control (inoculum only).The DO concentrations were determined by the iodometric titration method. Biodegradability was assessed by measuring the BOD values in milligrams per liter (oxygen uptake values of test compound minus control).Biodegradability was expressed as the first-order kinetic rate constant (K) according to the traditional Monod equation (on the assumption that the bacterial counts were invariable during the experimental period).The total surface area of molecules, the heat of formation (Hf), and the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (EHOMO) of read across chemical was calculated by the quantum chemical method Mopac Program. The linear regression analyses were performed with the SPSS® statistical package (Ver 10.0, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA).An obvious negative correlation apparently exists between Hf and K, that is, the lower the Hf value (-422.08 kj/M), the higher the K value (1.06/d), and thus based on this relationship, read across chemical was considered to be readily biodegradable by river bacteria.

Next study was done from peer reviewed journal “The Science of the Total Environment,” (1995) in this study Biodegradation experiment was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance Benzoic acid by bacteria as a test inoculum. Seeding bacteria was used as a test inoculum. The seeding bacteria had been cultured in a continuous anaerobic bioreactor at 37 + 1°C. Synthetic sewage, composed of glucose, peptone and corn steap liquor (carbon ratio = 1:1:2), is supplied into the reactor (3.0 g-C/l, 8.0 g-CS./.d). In this culture, > 95% acidic decomposition and > 90% methanogenic decomposition are achieved. A standard test using 50 ml vials (total capacity: 68 ml) was employed. Ten test vials were prepared under the same conditions, and they were set in a water bath at 37°C ± 0.5”C. The original solution was added to the test inoculum and organic medium in oxygen-free water. At the starting time and after every week, two vials were opened simultaneously, and the concentration of organic compound was analyzed. The concentration of organic compound was determined by dissolved organic carbon (DOC).Biodegradation ratio is determined by analyzing the decrease of DOC in the standard test. The percentage degradation of the read across compound was determined to be 101% in 14 days by using standard test. Thus, based on the percentage degradation, the read across chemical Benzoic acid (CAS no.65-85-0) was considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

Last experimental study was done from Water Pollution Control Federation journal (1976) in this study , Biodegradation experiment was conducted for 30 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, monopotassium salt (CAS no.877-24-7) . Glucose-glutamic acid mixture was used as a reference substance for the biodegradation study. The results are compared with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the read across chemical, which measures its maximum oxygen combining power; the results are also compared with the BOD test performed on a standard glucose-glutamic acid reference solution used for BOD calibration. Reference substance i.e; glucose-glutamic acid mixture consumes 75 percent of its maximum oxygen requirement (COD) within 5 days and almost 100 percent in 30 days. Thus, based on this result, the reference substance is considered to be readily biodegradable. The percentage degradation of read across substance was determined to be 92% by BOD parameter in 30 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, read across chemical 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, monopotassium salt was considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

Thus by considering all the studies mentioned above for target chemical 2-hydroxy-p-toluic acid (CAS no. 50 -85 -1) and its various structurally similar read across chemicals it is observed that predicted data study for target chemical interpret that target chemical is readily degradable but experimental study shows that it is not readily degradable but this result is obtained by using bacteria Desulfotomaculumsp. strain Groll and this bacteria is Gram positive anaerobic bacteria and uses sulfate as terminal electron acceptor which is reduced to sulfide. It is generally found in subsurface biosphere 10-100M below ground or sea bed. Therefore maybe because of all this criteria of this bacteria test chemical is not degraded by using this bacteria and this experiment was also conducted in anerobic condition. It can be possible that target chemical is readily degradable by aerobic condition by different bacteria. This possibility of degradation is supported by various studies of structurally similar read across chemicals as mentioned above from different sources all studies of read across chemical are showing that it is readily degradable. Further according to OECD guidelines degradability of target chemical should be analyzed by using activated sludge or bacteria from soil or water which are easily available in nature and has many different types of bacteria. Therefore on the basis of predicted data of target chemical and its structurally similar read across chemicals it is concluded that target chemical is readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation in water and sediment:

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (CAS No. 50 -85 -1). If released in to the environment, 26 % of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of test chemical 2-Hydroxy-4- methylbenzoic acid in water is estimated to be 15 days (360 hrs). The half-life (15 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of test chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid in sediment is estimated to be 135 days (3240 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.0853 %), indicates that test chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid is not persistent in sediment.  

Biodegradation in soil:

The half-life period of test chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (CAS No. 50 -85 -1) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 73.7% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of test chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid in soil is estimated to be 30 days (720 hrs). Based on this half-life value of test chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

On the basis of available information, the test substance 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid can be considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Bioaccumulation:

Bioaccumulation: aquatic/sediment

Different predicted data studies for the target compound 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (CAS No. 50-85-1) and supporting experimental weight of evidence studies for its structurally similar read across substance were reviewed for the bioaccumulation end point and results of all the studies are summarized as below:

In a prediction done using the BCFBAF Program (v3.01) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (CAS No. 50 -85 -1) was estimated. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid was estimated to be 3.162 L/kg whole body w.w (at 25 deg C).

In an another prediction done by using Bio-concentration Factor (v12.1.0.50374) module ACD (Advanced Chemistry Development)/I-Lab predictive module, 2017), the BCF over the entire pH scale of the test substance 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid was estimated to be 48.3, 46.3, 32.7, 8.32, 1.01 and approx. 1.0 at pH range 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5-14, respectively.

In next study the Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) of test chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (CAS no. 50 -85 -1) was estimated using Chemspider database (ChemSpider, 2017) of Royal Society of chemistry (RCS, 2017). The bioconcentration factor of test substance 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid was estimated to be 1.00 at both pH 5.5 and 7.4, respectively.

Another predicted data was estimated using SciFinder database (American Chemical Society (ACS), 2017) was used for predicting the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (CAS No. 50 -85 -1). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid was estimated to be 38.0, 26.9, 6.83 and 1.0 at pH range 1, 2, 3 and 4-10, respectively, (at 25 deg C).

From CompTox Chemistry Dashboard using OPERA (OPEn (quantitative) structure-activity Relationship Application)  V1.02 model in which calculation based on PaDEL descriptors (calculate molecular descriptors and fingerprints of chemical), the bioaccumulation i.e BCF for test substance 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid was estimated to be 3.99 dimensionless . The predicted BCF result was based on the 5 OECD principles. Thus based on the result it is concluded that the test substance 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid is non-bioaccumulative in nature.

In a supporting weight of evidence study from authoritative database (HSDB, 2017) for the read across chemical 2-hydroxy benzoic acid (CAS no. 69-72-7), the bioaccumulation experiment was conducted for estimating the BCF (bioaccumulation factor) value of read across chemical 2-hydroxy benzoic acid. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) value was calculated using a log Kow of 2.26 and a regression derived equation. The BCF (bioaccumulation factor) value 2 -hydroxy benzoic acid was determined to be 3 dimensionless.

Another supporting weight of evidence study was done from same source mentioned above for another read across chemical in this study BCF value was estimated to be 3 dimensionless for read across chemical O-acetylsalicylic acid, using a log Kow value of 1.19 and a regression-derived equation. This BCF suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low.

In next weight of evidence study from authoritative database HSDB, 2017 the BCF value was estimated to be 3 dimensionless for read across chemical phthalic acid , by using a log Kow of 0.73 and a regression-derived equation, this BCF suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is negligible.

In last experimental study for read cross chemical Benzoic acid BCF value was determined on the basis of Accumulation effect the Bioconcentration factor (BCF) for read across substance Benzoic acid was observed to be 21 dimensionless for dose concentration 1.78 ug/L in fish Gambusia affinis (Western Mosquitofish) for exposure period of 24 hrs. Based on the result it is concluded that the read across substance is non bioaccumulative in nature.

On the basis of above results for target chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (from EPI suite, ACD labs, ChemSpider, SciFinder database and CompTox Chemistry Dashboard,  2017) and for its read across substance (from authoritative database HSDB, and Ecotox database 2017), it can be concluded that the BCF value of test substance 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid ranges from 1 to 48.3 dimensionless which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid is not expected to bioaccumulate in the food chain.

 

Transport and Distribution:

Adsorption/desorption

Various predicted data for the target compound 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (CAS No. 50-85-1) and experimental studies for its structurally similar read across chemical were reviewed for the adsorption endpoint and results of all the studies are summarized below:

In first predicted data study Koc value of test chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (CAS No. 50 -85 -1) was estimated by using the KOCWIN Program (v2.00) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017). The soil adsorption coefficient i.e., Koc value of 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid was estimated to be 34.81 L/kg (log Koc=1.5417) by means of MCI method (at 25 deg C). This Koc value indicates that the substance 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid has a low sorption to soil and sediment and therefore has moderate migration potential to ground water.

In next predicted data study the Soil Adsorption Coefficient i.e Koc value of test substance 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (CAS no. 50 -85 -1) was estimated using Adsorption Coefficient module (v12.1.0.50374) program as Koc 558, 534, 377, 96.0, 11.7, 1.55 and 1.0 at pH range 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6-14, respectively (log Koc value ranges from 0 to 2.7 ± 1.0) of (ACD (Advanced Chemistry Development)/I-Lab predictive module, 2017). This Koc values indicate that the test substance 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid has a negligible sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have rapid migration potential to groundwater.

In an another prediction done by using ChemSpider Database (2017),the Soil Adsorption Coefficient i.e Koc value of test substance 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (CAS no. 50 -85 -1) was estimated. The adsorption coefficient (Koc) value of test substance 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid was estimated to be 1.0 (Log Koc = 0) at pH 5.5 and 7.4, respectively. This Koc value indicates that the test substance 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid has a negligible sorption to soil and sediment and therefore has rapid migration potential to groundwater.

Additional soil adsorption coefficient i.e., Koc value of test chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (CAS No. 50 -85 -1)was estimated using the SciFinder database (American Chemical Society (ACS), 2017).The soil adsorption coefficient i.e., Koc value of 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid was estimated to be 464, 328, 83.5, 10.2, 1.34 and 1.0 at pH range 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6-10, respectively (log Koc value ranges from 0 to 2.66) (at 25 deg C). This Koc value indicates that the substance 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid has a negligible sorption to soil and sediment and therefore has rapid migration potential to ground water.

From CompTox Chemistry Dashboard using OPERA (OPEn (quantitative) structure-activity Relationship Application)  V1.02 model in which calculation based on PaDEL descriptors (calculate molecular descriptors and fingerprints of chemical), the adsorption coefficient i.e., KOC for test substance 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid was estimated to be 44.5 L/kg (log Koc = 1.648).The predicted KOC result based on the 5 OECD principles. This Koc value indicates that the substance 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid has a low sorption to soil and sediment and therefore has moderate migration potential to ground water.

Next study was experimental study done by Sustainability Support Services (2017) for read across chemical 2-methoxybenzoic acid (2-MBA) (CAS No. 579 -75 -9) in this study the adsorption coefficient Koc in soil and in sewage sludge of read across chemical 2-methoxybenzoic acid (2-MBA) (CAS No. 579 -75 -9) was determined by the Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method. The reference substances were chosen according to estimated Koc range of the read across substance and generalized calibration graph was prepared. Five reference substances, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, Toluene, Naphthalene and Phenanthrene were chosen having Koc value range from 2.369 to 4.09. The Log Koc value of read across chemical 2-methoxybenzoic acid (2-MBA) (CAS No. 579 -75 -9) was determined to be 0.9919 dimensionless at 25°C. Based on the value of log Koc it is concluded that this read across chemical has negligible sorption to soil and sediments and therefore has rapid migration potential to ground water.

Next both the experimental studies were done from authoritative database HSDB, 2017 for two different read across chemicals salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid the adsorption coefficient (Koc) of substance salicylic acid was determined to be 404 using a log Kow of 2.26 and a regression-derived equation and the adsorption coefficient (Koc) of substance acetylsalicylic acid was determined to be 100(log Koc =2.00) using a log Kow of 1.19 and a regression-derived equation. Both Koc values suggest that acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid is expected to have high mobility in soil.

One more experimental study was done from authoritative database (HSDB, 2017) for read across chemical phthalic acid in this study the Koc values were determined for an acidic forest soil (Podzol, 4.85% organic carbon, pH 2.8), an agricultural soil (Alfisol, 1.25% organic carbon, pH 6.7) and a sublimnic soil (sediment from Lake Constance, Germany, 1.58% organic carbon, pH 7) as 31, 2 and 2, respectively. Koc values suggest that phthalic acid is expected to have very high mobility in soil.

On the basis of above overall results for target chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid(from EPI suite, ACD labs, ChemSpider, SciFinder database and CompTox Chemistry Dashboard, 2017) and its read across chemical (from HSDB, and SSS) , it can be concluded that the Koc value of test substance 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid ranges from 1 to 558 dimensionless indicating that the test chemical 2-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid has a negligible to low sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have rapid to moderate migration potential to ground water.