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EC number: 201-732-5
CAS number: 87-22-9
Classification of 2-phenylethyl
2-hydroxybenzoate for effects in the environment:
The chemical 2-phenylethyl
2-hydroxybenzoate (CAS no. 87-22-9) is used to as a flavouring agent in
foods. The aim was to assess whether the PBT criterion within Annex XIII
was fulfilled for2-phenylethyl 2-hydroxybenzoate. The PBT criterion was
herein assessed based on experimental data in conjunction with
standardized environmental fate models. Here follows a description of
the PBT assessment.
The tested substance does not
fulfil the P criterion within Annex XIII based on the assessment that
The ready biodegradability of test
chemical was determined in accordance with the OECD Guideline 301 F
(Ready Biodegradability: Manometric Respirometry Test) (Experimental
study report, 2000). Fresh activated sludge from a biological waste
water treatment plant treating predominantly domestic sewage was used.
The sludge is collected in the morning, washed three times in the
mineral medium (by centrifuging at 1000 g for 10 minutes, discarding the
supernant and resuspending in mineral medium) and kept aerobic until
being used on the same day. Initial test substance concentration used in
the study was 100 mg/l. Mineral medium was prepared by mixing 50 ml of
solution A and 2000 ml deionised water, adding 5 ml of each of the
solutions B, C and D and making up to 5 litres with deionised water. The
pH is measured and if necessary adjusted to 7.4 +/- 0.2 with phosphoric
acid or potassium hydroxide. The water used during this study is
deionised water containing less than 10 mg/l dissolved organic carbon.
Suspended solids concentration used in the study was 3.289 g/l. To
obtain a concentration of inoculum of 30 mg/l (dry weight) in a 250 ml
flask, 2.28 ml of sludge is needed (inoculum). Sodium benzoate (100
mg/l) (purity min. 99.0%) was used as a reference substance. Degradation
of sodium benzoate exceeded 40% after 7 days and 65% after 14 days, the
activity of the inoculum was thus verified and the test is considered as
valid. Test chemical undergoes 93% biodegradation after 28 days in the
test conditions. Biodegradation starts on day 3 and reached 80% at the
end of the 10-day window (day 3 to 13). The curves obtained with the
reference substance alone and with test chemical plus reference
substance show no toxic effect of test chemical to the micro-organisms
at the test concentration (100 mg/l). Thus, test chemical is considered
as readily biodegradable.
Thus, based on the available
information, it indicates that chemical 2 -phenylethyl 2 -hydroxybenzoate
was considered to be readily biodegradable in water and thus likely to
be not persistent (not P) in nature.
According to the fugacity model levels
III, the most likely environmental fate for this test chemical is soil (i.e.estimated
to be 73%). In soil,2-phenylethyl 2-hydroxybenzoatewas expected to have
negligible to slow mobility based upon a Log KOC value of 3.5 to 3.7 (at
pH 7.0). The half-life in soil (30 days estimated by EPI suite)
indicates that the chemical is not persistent in soil and the exposure
risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.
If released in to the environment,
22.1% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay
fugacity model level III in EPI suite version 4.1. However, the
half-life (15 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical
is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is
moderate to low.
Moreover, its persistent
characteristic is only observed in the sediment compartment but Fugacity
modelling shows that sediment is not an important environmental fate
(less than 5% i.e reported as 4.02% when estimated by EPI Suite version
Hence it has been concluded thatchemicalSodium
naphthalene-1-sulphonateis not persistent in nature.
The tested substance does not
fulfil the B criterion within Annex XIII based on the assessment that
The estimated BCF value from
authoritative databases was evaluated to bein the range of 1.95 to 1560,
respectively and the octanol water partition coefficient of the test
chemical from various reliable sources was evaluated to be in the range
4.26 to 4.5, respectively, which is close to the threshold of 4.5. If
this chemical is released into the aquatic environment, there should be
a low risk for the chemical to bioaccumulate in fish and food chains.
The tested substance does not
fulfil the T criterion within Annex XIII based on the assessment that
The tested chemical is regarded to be
not classified for carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reprotoxicity,
Further, there is no evidence of chronic toxicity, as identified by the
classifications STOT (repeated exposure), category 1(oral, dermal,
inhalation of gases/vapours, inhalation of dust/mist/fume) or category 2
(oral, dermal, inhalation of gases/vapours, inhalation of dust/mist/fume).
All of the availablevarious
experimental studies ofshort term eco-toxicity for fishof the
structurally similar read across substance and applying the weight of
evidence approach, the LC50 value was evaluated to be in the range of >
12.5 mg/l to 43 mg/L, respectively. On the basis of available data of2-phenylethyl
2-hydroxybenzoate(CAS no. 87-22-9) of short term toxicity of aquatic
invertebrates and algae study, the EC50 value was evaluated to be 4.91
mg/l and 12.36 mg/l, respectively. These value suggest that the
substance is likely to be hazardous to aquatic organisms. Since the test
chemical is readily biodegradable in water, chemical2-phenylethyl
2-hydroxybenzoateis considered as not hazardous to aquatic organisms at
environmentally relevant concentrations and hence, considered to be ‘Not
classified’ as per the CLP regulation.
There are no available long-term
toxicity evaluations forchemical 2-phenylethyl 2-hydroxybenzoate. By
speculation, long-term NOEC for aquatic organisms were not expected for
the substance at concentration below 0.01 mg/L based on the data
The chemical was therefore not
considered as hazardous to aquatic environments as per the criteria set
out in Annex XIII.
Based on critical, independent and
collective evaluation of information summarized herein, the tested
compound does not fulfil the P, B and T criterion and has therefore not
been classified as a PBT compound within Annex XIII.
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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