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EC number: 202-705-0
CAS number: 98-83-9
In vitro studies (bold = Key Study)
Huels AG (1989), Amoco Co. (1991), Zeiger et al.
(1992),MHW Japan (1997), NTP (2007):
negative in Salmonella typhimurium TA 100, TA 1535,
TA 1538, TA 98, TA 97, TA 1537 and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA (with or
without metabolic activation; study design comparable to OECD Guidelines
No. 471 and 472)
MHW Japan (1997):
no chromosomal aberrations or polyploidy in Chinese hamster lung cells
(CHL/IU; with or without metabolic activation; study design comparable
to OECD Guideline No. 473)
Amoco Co. (1991) / NTP (2007): no chromosomal
aberrations in CHO cells (with or without metabolic activation; study
design comparable to OECD Guideline No. 473)
Amoco Co. (1991): negative in the CHO/HGPT mutation
assay (with or without metabolic activation; study design comparable to
OECD Guideline No. 476)
sister chromatid exchanges in CHO cells: positive with metabolic
activation and negative without metabolic activation (study design
comparable to OECD Guideline No. 479)
Norppa & Vainio (1983): sister chromatid exchange
assay in lymphocyte cultures of a healthy male donor: ambiguous without
In vivo studies:
micronucleus assay with a study comparable to OECD Guideline No. 474: no
significant increases in the frequencies of micronucleated erythrocytes
in blood samples of male mice obtained at the conclusion of the 3-month
study, but significant increase in micronucleated erythrocytes in
high-dosed (1000 ppm) females. Reticulocytes (polychromatic immature
erythrocytes; PCEs) were also scored for frequency of micronucleated
cells in male and female mice. No increase in micronucleated PCEs was
observed in either sex at the highest exposure concentration of 1000
ppm, indicating that the damage observed in the mature erythrocyte
population in 1000 ppm females was reflective of long-term accumulation
of damage and was not detectable immediately after exposure by analyzing
recently-formed (within 48 hours) reticulocytes. In view of the nature
of the observed increases in micronucleated cells in these female mice
and the clear absence of clastogenic effect observed in mammalian cells
in vitro, the significance of this weak positive result is uncertain (high
dose only, without trend).
on the available and valid in vitro and in vivo data a classification is
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