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Toxicological information

Acute Toxicity: oral

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
acute toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
documentation insufficient for assessment

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Acute and subacute toxicity in Sherman strain rats exposed to 4,4'- and 2,2'-dipyridyl
Author:
Groce DF, Kimbrough RD
Year:
1982
Bibliographic source:
J Toxicol Environ Health. 1982, 10(3):363-72;

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
Male and female rats received the test item as 2 % solution in 20 % ethanol by gavage. Four groups of 10 adult male or female Sherman rats were used per dose group. The control groups received the 20 % ethanol vehicle only. Two weeks after administration, survivors were killed, selected tissues were removed, fixed in formaldehyde and examined microscopically after H&E staining. LD50 values were calculated by the method of Litchfield & Wilcoxon.
GLP compliance:
no
Test type:
standard acute method
Limit test:
no

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
2,2'-bipyridyl
EC Number:
206-674-4
EC Name:
2,2'-bipyridyl
Cas Number:
366-18-7
Molecular formula:
C10H8N2
IUPAC Name:
2,2'-bipyridyl
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): 2,2'-bipyridyl

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
Sherman
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Center for Disease Control
- Fasting period before study: 24 h
- Housing: individually
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): controlled
- Humidity (%): controlled
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
ethanol
Remarks:
20%
Details on oral exposure:
VEHICLE
- Concentration in vehicle: 2 %
Doses:
75, 120 and 150 mg/kg bw
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10 animals per sex per dose group
Control animals:
yes
Details on study design:
- Duration of observation period following administration: 14 days
- Necropsy of survivors performed: yes
- Other examinations performed: clinical signs, histopathology
Statistics:
The LD50 was calculated by the method of Litchfield and Wilcoxon (J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1949, 96:99 -113)

Results and discussion

Effect levelsopen allclose all
Sex:
male
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
100 mg/kg bw
Based on:
test mat.
95% CL:
>= 89 - <= 112
Sex:
female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
107 mg/kg bw
Based on:
test mat.
95% CL:
>= 101 - <= 113
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LD0
Effect level:
75 mg/kg bw
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male
Dose descriptor:
LD100
Effect level:
150 mg/kg bw
Based on:
test mat.
Mortality:
The acute oral LD50 values of 2,2'-bipyridine were 100 mg/kg bw in male and 107 mg/kg bw in female rats.
75 mg/kg bw had no effect on male or female rats.
At 150 mg/kg bw there was 100% mortality in males, and 120 mg/kg bw caused 80% mortality in female rats.
Clinical signs:
Clinical signs included immediate subdued behaviour, loss of muscle coordination, red urine, and tremors. Convulsions were observed immediately before death which occurred 1 or 2 d after dosing.
Gross pathology:
Autopsies of rats that died from acute doses of 2,2'-dipyridyl revealed massive pulmonary hemorrhage. Microscopic lung changes included pulmonary edema, intra-alveolar hemorrhage, congestion, and atelectasis. Kidneys and spleen also were congested.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
Category 3 based on GHS criteria
Conclusions:
The acute oral LD50 values of 2,2'-bipyridine were 100 mg/kg bw in male and 107 mg/kg bw in female rats.
Executive summary:

Acute oral toxicity of 2,2’-bipyridine was determined in a gavage assay on rats. Groups of 10 male or female rats were treated by gavage with the test item as 2% solution in 20% ethanol. Dosing was 75 mg/kg bw for male and female groups, 120 mg/kg bw female, 150 mg/kg male. Observation period was 14 days; subsequently, animals were killed and a necropsy was performed.

The acute oral LD50 values of 2,2'-bipyridine were 100 mg/kg bw in male and 107 mg/kg bw in female rats. The steepness of the dose-response curve is quite high: while at 75 mg/kg no effects were observed, 80% of the females died at 120 mg/kg bw and all males died at 150 mg/kg bw. Clinical signs included immediate subdued behaviour, loss of muscle coordination, red urine, and tremors. Convulsions were observed immediately before death which occurred 1 or 2 d after dosing.