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Environmental fate & pathways

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

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Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species, other
Type of information:
other: Expert statement
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Qualifier:
no guideline required
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Expert statement
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
Expert statement
Remarks on result:
not measured/tested
Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species: fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 305 (Bioconcentration: Flow-through Fish Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Radiolabelling:
no
Details on sampling:
- Sampling intervals/frequency for test organisms: at day 7, 14, 21, 35, 46, and 60 of exposure period and at day 0.5, 1, 3, and 4 (test group 1)
or 6 (test group 2) of depuration period
- Sampling intervals/frequency for test medium samples: at day 1, 7, 14, 21, 35, 46, and 60 of exposure period
- Details on sampling and analysis of test organisms and test media samples (e.g. sample preparation, analytical methods):
For each sampling intervall, 4 test fish were used. Two fish were pooled for work up and analysis yielding in two results (group a and b)
for each sampling period.
Test fish were cut in pieces and fragmented. A 3 to 5 g aliquot was homogenized in 15 mL acetonitrile and centrifuged at 5000 x g for 5 min.
The supernatant was filtrated and a 5 mL aliquot of a total of 25 ml purified over a SepPack Alumina B column (elution with acetonitril).
The column eluate was analyzed by GC-MS.
After addition of sodium chloride, test water samples were extracted with choroform and the organic phase was filtrated over filter paper.
The filtrate adjusted to 5 mL with cloroform was used for GC-MS analysis.
Vehicle:
yes
Details on preparation of test solutions, spiked fish food or sediment:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: DMSO was used as dispersing agent: 10 g TS/L DMSO was diluted with DMSO to prepare two stock solutions:
These were prepared by dissolving test substance in the vehicle at a concentration of 200 mg/L and 20.0 mg/l for group 1
and group 2 respectively; test solutions were generated by supplying 0.04 mL/min of stock solution using a micro metering pump
and 1600 mL/min of dilution water to the flow-through test system (total of 2304 L/day).
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): DMSO
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium (test groups and controls): 25 ppm
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc): no data
Test organisms (species):
Cyprinus carpio
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: common carp
- Source: Yabegawa Fishery Cooperative Association, Fukuoka, Japan
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): yearling
- Length at study initiation: 6.3 - 10 cm
- Health status: healthy
- Description of housing/holding area: aquatron room of the test facility
- Feeding during test
- Food type: young carp formula feed, Nippon Formula Feed Mfg Co., Ltd.
- Amount: ca. 2% if fish body weight
- Frequency: twice per day

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 24 d
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): yes
- Type and amount of food: young carp formula feed, Nippon Formula Feed Mfg Co., Ltd.
- Feeding frequency: twice per day
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): no data
Route of exposure:
aqueous
Test type:
flow-through
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: freshwater
Total exposure / uptake duration:
60 d
Total depuration duration:
>= 4 - <= 6 d
Hardness:
77.5 mg/L (Ca, Mg; analytic value of dilution water)
Test temperature:
25 °C
pH:
7.7 - 8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
7.2 - 8.1 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type (delete if not applicable): flow through system for volatile matter
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 100 L glas tank
- Aeration: no data
- Type of flow-through (e.g. peristaltic or proportional diluter):
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): flow rate 96 L/h (1600 mL/min)
- No. of organisms per vessel: 46 (test groups), 12 (vehicle contol)
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 1
- No. of vessels per control / vehicle control (replicates): 1
- Biomass loading rate: no data

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: ground water from the site of the laboratory (water quality according to OECD TG 305)
- Particulate matter: < 1 mg/L
- Metals:
- Pesticides: < 0.0001 mg/L
- Chlorine: < 0.01 mg/L
- Alkalinity: 158 mg/L
- Ca/mg ratio:
- Conductance: 493 µS/cm
- Holding medium different from test medium: no
- Intervals of water quality measurement: once every 6 month
- Intervals of test medium replacement: flow-through test

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: no
- Photoperiod: 14 h light / 10 h dark (white fluorescent lamp)
- Light intensity: no data

RANGE-FINDING / PRELIMINARY STUDY
- Test concentrations: 0.953, 1.71, 3.09, 5.56, and 10.0 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: 96-h LC50 of 2.44 mg/L (test species Oryzias latipes)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations
Group 1: 5 µg/l ; Group 2: 0.5 µg/L
Measured concentrations (mean over exposure period and 7 peaks)
Group 1: 4.78 µg/L; Group 2: 0.47 µg/L
Lipid content:
ca. 4.1 %
Time point:
end of exposure
Remarks on result:
other: control group
Type:
BCF
Value:
ca. 1 800 - ca. 6 400
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Time of plateau:
35 d
Calculation basis:
steady state
Remarks on result:
other: BCF range for peak A to G (individual values see table below)
Remarks:
Conc.in environment / dose:4.85 µg/L (measured, mean of plateau)
Type:
BCF
Value:
770 - 2 400
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Time of plateau:
35 d
Calculation basis:
steady state
Remarks on result:
other: BCF range for peak A to F (individual values see table below)
Remarks:
Conc.in environment / dose:0.47 µg/L (measured, mean of plateau)
Elimination:
yes
Details on results:
- Mortality of test organisms: no
- Behavioural abnormalities: no
- Observations on body length and weight: no data
- Other biological observations: no abnormalities observed
- Organ specific bioaccumulation: highest acculmulation of test substance in head and viscera, lowest acculmulation in the edible portion of the fish
- Mortality and/or behavioural abnormalities of control: only vehicle controls
- Results with vehicle control: no abnormalities observed

1. BIOCONCENTRATION

 

Steady state could be established for peak A of group 1 and peaks B to F of group 1 and 2 using whole body BCF. For the other groups steady state was determined using BCF based on average lipid content (see below).

Steady state BCF values (BCFss, based on total body weight) were as follows (Section 5.3):

 

Peak

Group 1 (5 µg/L)

Group 2 (0.5 µg/L)

A

6100

2400

B

2200

1100

C

3600

1200

D

1800

770

E

2600

940

F

6400

2200

G

3000

~ 2000

 

 

The bioaccumulation potential for the isomer peak A and F of diisopropylnaphthalene was found to be much higher than for the other isomers as indicated by their BCF.

 

Steady states were reached after 21 days (group 1) and 7 days (group 2) (see Tables 12 + 13 / Fig. 1 and 2 and Section 6(5), p. 38).

 

Total-body values were converted to the BCF values relating to average lipid content to minimize the range of fluctuation of individual measurements.

 

Tissue distribution of BCFs was determined for four body regions (integument, head, viscera, edible portion, see above under materials and methods). Head and viscera showed the highest regional BCF values. They were significantly above the average overall BCFs. The edible fraction showed the lowest BCFs considerable below the average overall BCFs (Section 5.5, Tables 6-1 to 6-4).

 

2. ELIMINATION (half-lives) (Section 5.4 and Fig-Series 13)

 

Following depuration for 6 and 4 days (group 1 and 2 respectively, 4 samples each), half-life for individual peaks was determined from the resulting depuration curves.

 

 

Peak

Group 1 (5 µg/L)

Group 2 (0.5 µg/L)

half-life

[d]

body residue day 6
[%]

half-life

[d]

body residue day 4
[%]

A

3.9

46

1.7

17

B

1.9

11

1.6

22

C

2.3

19

1.8

28.5

D

2.0

11.5

1.8

28

E

2.0

11.5

1.7

24.5

F

3.2

26.5

1.9

33

G

5.0

36

1.8

25.5

 

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
1. The extent of bioaccumulation is dependent on individual components.
2. The extent of bioaccumulation is dependent on the exposure concentration. At the low concentration (group 2), the BCF was significantly lower (highest value 2400) compared to the high concentration (group 1, highest value 6400) (see table under Remarks on results).
3. The elimination rate appears to be dependent on exposure concentration. At the lower concentration, somewhat shorter half-lifes were observed. The higher depuration at the lower body burden may be explained by limitations/saturation of metabolism and excretion mechanisms at higher exposure.
4. Irrespective of the exposure concentration, elimination from the organism proved to be very high.
5. The relative high accumulation of the viscera suggests active metabolism and elimination.
6. 2,6-DIPN showed the lowest BCF values of the position isomers examined.

Description of key information

Bis(isopropyl)naphthalene (DIPN) is an isomeric mixture, which consist of seven isomers (1,3-, 1,4-, 1,5-, 1,6-, 2,6- and 2,7-DIPN). Bioaccumulation potential differs between the isomers. According to OECD 305 the lipid normalized BCF values were determined to range between 810 -2500 (low dose group; 0.47 µg/L) and 2200-7800 (high dose group; 4.85 µg/L), respectively. Hence, some isomers of bis(isopropyl)naphthalene fulfil the criterion of being bioaccumualtive (BCF > 200). Although the environmental relevance of the results from the high exposure concentration is questionable (see expert statement ETC, 2017) the highest measured BCF value of 7800 was used as an worst case assumption for the bioaccumulation assessment. Therefore, the isomeric mixture bis(isopropyl)naphthalene (CAS 38640-62-9) was assessed as bioaccumulative (B) and potentially very bioaccumulative (vB) under environmental conditions.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

BCF (aquatic species):
7 800 dimensionless

Additional information

Bis(isopropyl)naphthalene (DIPN) is an isomeric mixture, which consists of seven isomers (1,3-, 1,4-, 1,5-, 1,6-, 2,6- and 2,7-DIPN). Bioaccumulation potential differs between the isomers.

Kikushima et al. (2003) performed a study of the bioconcentration of bis(isopropyl)naphtalene in fish according to OECD 305 (1996) and under GLP conditions. Fish were exposed for 60 days to 2 concentrations of DIPN (4.85 and 0.47 µg/L). The test compound was composed of seven isomers of DIPN which could be separated and quantified with respect to DIPN isomers on GC-MS. Steady state conditions were reached after 21 days and after 7days (high dose group and low dose group respectively).

The BCF values were determined to be between 1800 and 6400 (high dose group) and between 770 and 2400 (low dose group) for individual isomers. After lipid normalisation (5% lipid) according to the current OECD 305 and the REACH Guidance Document R.11 (v2.0, 2014), the BCF ranges changed to 810 -2500 and 2200 -7800, respectively. Depuration was fast after cessation of exposure with half-lives between 1.9 and 5.0 days for high dose and 1.6 to 1.9 days for low dose animals.

The study by Kikushima et al. (2003) is valid and reliable, as no major deviations from the guideline and methodological deficiencies were noted. However, the exposure was performed at concentrations significantly higher than currently observed in the environment. The upper exposure level is about 240 times the median concentration of the River Rhine and still 42 times its highest concentration. Therefore, the environmental relevance of the results from this high exposure is questionable (Expert statement evaluating the available information on bioaccumulation authored by ECT, 2017).

Although the environmental relevance of the results from the high exposure concentration is questionable the highest measured BCF value of 7800 was used as an worst case assumption for the bioaccumulation assessment. Therefore, the isomeric mixture bis(isopropyl)naphthalene (CAS 38640-62-9) was assessed as bioaccumulative (B) and potentially very bioaccumulative (vB) under environmental conditions.