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EC number: 265-198-5
CAS number: 64742-94-5
A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained from distillation of aromatic streams. It consists predominantly of aromatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C9 through C16 and boiling in the range of approximately 165°C to 290°C (330°F to 554°F).
Groups of 10 male and 10 female F344N rats
received 0, 312, 625, 1250, 2500, or 5000 mg toluene/kg in corn oil by
gavage for 13 weeks. All rats in the 5000 mg/kg group died within the
first week. In the 2500 mg/kg group 8 males and one female died before
termination of the study. The final mean body weight of males that
received 2500 mg/kg was 19% lower than that of vehicle controls.
Clinical signs included prostration, hypoactivity, ataxia, piloerection,
lachrymation, and excessive salivation in the 5000 and 2500 mg/kg
groups. Absolute and relative kidney weight was increased in males at
625 mg/kg and higher, and in females at 1,250 mg/kg and higher.
The differences in absolute and relative
liver weights for female rats that received 2500 or 1250 mg/kg (22-62%
relative liver weight increase) and for males that received 1250 or 625
mg/kg (8-78% relative liver weight increase) were statistically
significant. Statistically significant increases were also seen in
absolute and relative heart weight for male and female rats at 2500 and
females at 1250 mg/kg. Absolute, but not relative brain weight was
reduced in both sexes at 2500 mg/kg. There were no treatment related
effects in the haematological and serum chemical analyses or urinalyses.
Neuropathological changes in the brain, consisting of neuronal cell
necrosis in the dentate gyrus and Ammons horn of the hippocampus, was
seen in male and female rats that received 2500 or 1250 mg/kg. In
addition to the hippocampal lesions, necrosis and/or mineralisation were
present in the granular layer of the cerebellar cortex. Haemorrhage was
present in the mucosa, submucosa, or muscularis of the urinary bladder
of males and females of the two highest dose groups. A dose of 312
mg/kg/kg did not cause any effects.
The NOAEL for repeat dose oral toxicity is
considered to be 625 mg/kg. At this dose increased absolute and relative
liver and kidney weight (up to 46% increase in relative kidney weight,
up to 78% increase in relative liver weight) were unaccompanied by
histopathological findings were present. Therefore, the increased
relative weights of liver and kidney are interpreted as toxicologically
non-significant signs of metabolic activity related to exposure.
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