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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method C.2 (Acute Toxicity for Daphnia)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: Control and all test concentrations
- Sampling method: Samples at the beginning of each renewal period were taken from fresh solutions just before distributing it to the four replicates. Samples of the aged test solution were taken from each vessel and pooled per concentration.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: Samples were acidified with concentrated nitric acid and were stored at approximately 4 °C until analysis.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: A stock solution of 100 mg test item/L was prepared in dilution water. The solution was stirred for approximately 2.5 hours at room temperature and filtered with a 0.2 μm PES-Filter. The individual test solutions were prepared by dilution of the stock solution with dilution water. The test solutions were freshly prepared before test start and at renewal.
- Controls: Dilution water only
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Strain: Clone V
- Source: German Federal Environment Agency, Institut für Wasser-, Bodenund Lufthygiene. Specimens used in the test were bred in the laboratory of the Fraunhofer IME.
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 4 to 24 hours old:
- Feeding during test: No

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 1 week
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): No. Adults were held at room temperature in ca. 1.8 L dilution water for one week. Newborn D. magna were separated by sieving, the first generation was discarded. Individuals applied in the test were transferred with a bore Pasteur pipette a few hours after sieving to ensure applying only healthy specimens.
- Type and amount of food: Algal suspension (Desmodesmus subspicatus) and LiquizellR (HOBBY)
- Feeding frequency: 30 mL of algal suspension was given to 1 L Daphnia medium daily
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
Total: 1.2 - 1.3 mmol/L
Ca: 1.1 - 1.2 mmol/L
Mg: 0.1 mmol/L
Test temperature:
19.8 – 20.4 °C
pH:
6.4 – 8.4
Dissolved oxygen:
7.4 mg/L - 8.7 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: 5.68, 11.4, 22.7, 45.5, and 100 mg test item /L
Time weighted average concentrations: 2.94, 5.90, 12.1, 22.7 and 55.7 mg test item /L

The mean measured ruthenium concentrations of the freshly prepared test solutions of the test item were between 49% and 57% of nominal loading. In aged test solutions, test item concentrations were 49% and 56% of nominal loading. Recovery rates in aged test solutions were 94% and 100%.

As recovery rates were not in a range of 80 – 120% of nominal throughout the test, TWM were applied for effect assessment.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 mL glass beakers, covered with glass panes
- Type (delete if not applicable): open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: Approximately 50 mL
- Aeration: No
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): After 24 hours exposure
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Drinking water, purified by filtration with activated charcoal, passage through a limestone column, and aeration
- Metals: < 0.513 (LOD) μg/L Cd, < 0.447 (LOD) μg/L Cr, < 1.25 (LOD) μg/L Cu, < 3.30 (LOD) μg/L Fe, < 1.22 (LOQ) μg/L Mn, < 1.46 (LOQ) μg/L Ni, < 2.06 (LOQ) μg/L Pb, ≤ 3.51 μg/L Zn
- Chlorine: < 0.02 – 0.02 mg/L
- Alkalinity: 2.0 – 2.4 mmol/L
- Conductivity: 227 – 244 μS/cm
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Oxygen concentration, pH value, and temperature of the test solutions are checked at test start, after 24 hours and after 48 hours

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS

- Photoperiod: Light/dark cycle of 16/8 hours
- Light intensity: 906 – 945 lx (corresponding to 12.1 – 12.6 μE/(m² *s))

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : The numbers of dead animals and any abnormalities in appearance and behaviour were visually determined daily.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Range finding study: Yes, the test concentrations applied (up to 100 mg/L) were based on the results of a non GLP range finding test.
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
K2Cr2O7
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 55.7 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (TWA)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 55.7 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (TWA)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: Neither significant signs of disease nor stress like discolouration or abnormal behaviour were observed in any replicate up to a concentration of 55.7 mg/L (TWM). All surviving specimens, up to the highest test item concentration, gave the impression of healthy condition.
- Mortality of control: None observed
Results with reference substance (positive control):
- Results with reference substance valid? Yes
- EC50/LC50: 1.32 mg/L (24 hours)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
No daphnid died during the study, i.e., mortality was not observed in the control or in any treatment, including the highest test concentration of 55.7 mg tetraammonium decachloro-μ- oxoruthenate per litre (TWM, corresponding to nominal 100 mg per litre). Therefore, no statistical test was performed.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
No mortality was observed in the controls over the test period and the dissolved oxygen concentration at the end of the aging period (48 h) was ≥ 3 mg/L in control and test vessels.
Conclusions:
Tetraammonium decachloro-μ-oxodiruthenate is not acutely toxic to Daphnia magna under the chosen test conditions. The NOEC is ≥ 55.7 mg/L (highest concentration tested) and the EC50 is > 55.7 mg/L, based on time-weighted mean measured test concentrations.
Executive summary:

The influence of tetraammonium decachloro-μ-oxodiruthenate on immobilisation of Daphnia magna was investigated in a GLP-compliant study according to OECD Guideline 202. Daphnids were placed in dilution water containing the test item at nominal concentrations of 5.68, 11.4, 22.7, 45.5, and 100 mg test item/L. Test solutions were analysed for ruthenium using ICP-OES and as measured concentrations were outside 80 – 120% of nominal, time weighted mean measured concentrations of (2.94, 5.9, 12.1, 22.7 and 55.7 mg/L) were used for reporting of results. The test was conducted under semi-static conditions for 48 hours. Effects on immobilisation were determined after 24 and 48 hours.

No significantly increased mortality up to a TWM concentration of 55.7 mg test item/L (highest test concentration, corresponding to 100 mg/L nominal) was detected when compared to the control daphnids The NOEC is ≥ 55.7 mg/L (highest concentration tested) and the EC50 is > 55.7 mg/L, based on time-weighted mean measured test concentrations.

Description of key information

No experimental study is required for ruthenium dioxide based on the outcome of a full TDp assay (cfr. IUCLID Section 4 'Water solubility') and the identified acute and chronic threshold values with other water soluble ruthenium substances.

Tetraammonium decachloro-μ-oxodiruthenate is not acutely toxic to Daphnia magna under the chosen test conditions. The NOEC is ≥ 55.7 mg L-1 (highest concentration tested) and the EC50 is > 55.7 mg L-1, based on time-weighted mean measured test concentrations.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Effect concentration:
17 mg/L

Additional information

No experimental study is required for ruthenium dioxide based on the outcome of a full TDp assay (cfr. IUCLID Section 4 'Water solubility') and the identified acute and chronic threshold values with other water soluble ruthenium substances.

The influence of tetraammonium decachloro-μ-oxodiruthenate on immobilisation of Daphnia magna was investigated in a GLP-compliant study according to OECD Guideline 202 (Simon 2016). Daphnids were placed in dilution water containing the test item at nominal concentrations of 5.68, 11.4, 22.7, 45.5, and 100 mg test item L-1. Test solutions were analysed for ruthenium using ICP-OES and as measured concentrations were outside 80 – 120% of nominal, time weighted mean measured concentrations of (2.94, 5.9, 12.1, 22.7 and 55.7 mg L-1) were used for reporting of results. The test was conducted under semi-static conditions for 48 hours. Effects on immobilisation were determined after 24 and 48 hours.

No significantly increased mortality up to a TWM concentration of 55.7 mg test item L-1 (highest test concentration, corresponding to 100 mg L-1 nominal) was detected when compared to the control daphnids. The NOEC is ≥ 55.7 mg L-1 (highest concentration tested) and the EC50 is > 55.7 mg L-1, based on time-weighted mean measured test concentrations. These values correspond to 17 mg Ru/L

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