Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Workers - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Most sensitive endpoint:
irritation (respiratory tract)
Acute/short term exposure
Most sensitive endpoint:
irritation (respiratory tract)
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
1.1 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
irritation (respiratory tract)
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
2.9 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
irritation (respiratory tract)
DNEL related information

Workers - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Most sensitive endpoint:
irritation (respiratory tract)
Acute/short term exposure
Most sensitive endpoint:
irritation (respiratory tract)
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Most sensitive endpoint:
irritation (respiratory tract)
Acute/short term exposure
Most sensitive endpoint:
irritation (respiratory tract)

Workers - Hazard for the eyes

Additional information - workers

The toxicological profile of phosphorus trichloride is dominated by local effects (irritation/corrosion). The substance rapidly reacts with water or atmospheric moisture to produce hydrochloric and phosphoric acids. No systemic toxicity is predicted.

Acute oral toxicity

The acute oral LD50 of phosphorus trichloride was found to be 200 mg/kg bw and 540 mg/kg bw in the rat in older proprietary studies comparable to OECD 401 (Terrell, 1977; Lesit & Weigand, 1978). A further published study (Molodkina, 1973) reports an LD50 value of 550 mg/kg bw. However a much lower value of 18.0 mg/kg bw was determined in another study (Randall & Robinson, 1990). The wide variation in acute oral LD50 values may be a consequence of the dose vehicle: vegetable/corn oil was used as a vehicle in the studies of Terrell and Molodkina, however the study of Randall & Robinson did not use a dosing vehicle. The consequent rapid and violent reaction of the test substance in the stomach may therefore potentiallty have caused much greater toxicity.

Acute inhalation toxicity

In a proprietary acute inhlation toxicity study (Cannon, 1977), no deaths (0/10) occurred in rats exposed to a nomimal exposure concentration of 20.29 mg/L. However the study is not considered to be sufficiently reliable in the absence of any analytical data on the exposure concentration. An additonal published study by Molodkina (1973) reported an analytical LC50 of 0.22 mg/L. An additional study (Hollander & Mayer, 1977) reported mortaility in rats exposed for very brief periods. A good quality published study (Weeks et al, 1964) reports analytical LC50 values for 4 -hour exposures of 0.592 mg/l in rats and 0.285 mg/l in guinea pigs.

Acute dermal toxicity

In the acute dermal toxicity study in the rabbit (Imlay, 1977), no deaths occurred at a dose level of 250 mg/kg bw (0/13 animals tested), however the single animal tested at 500 mg/kg bw died. Based on the results of this study, the acute dermal LD50 of teh substance is calculated to be between 250 -500 mg/kg bw, but is considered likely to be closer to 500 mg/kg bw. In a further rabbit study, the acute dermal LD50 was calculated to be 1260 mg/kg bw.

Skin irritation/corrosion

Phosphorus trichloride was found to cause corrosive effects in a skin irritation study (Imlay, 1977). Similar effects are reported in studies by Randall & Robinson (1990), Molodkina (1973) and Leist & Weigand (1978). A study summary (Pauluhn, 1984) reports corrosive effects within 60 second of the dermal application of 100 ul phosphorus trichloride.

Eye irritation

Severe reactions seen in an eye irritation study (Imlay, 1977) were confirmed in other studies by Randall & Robinson (1990), Molodkina (1973) and Leist & Weigand (1978).

Sensitisation

No data are available. There are a small number of reports of occupational asthma, however it is unclear whether the effects have an immunological basis or represent an irritant effect.

Genotoxicity

No evidence of mutagenicity was seen in Ames tests (Brusick, 1977; McMahon et al, 1979) and no effects were seen on micronuclei induction in the mouse bone marrow (He et al, 1989).

Developmental and reproductive toxicity

No developmental toxicity or teratogenicity was seen in a study in the rat; no effects on sperm morphology were seen in the rat or mouse (He et al, 1989).

Additional information

Phosphorus trichloride was found to inhibit plasma butyrylcholinesterase at high dose levels in the mouse, but was without effect on acetylcholinesterase. This finding is considered to be without physiological significance.

Effects in exposed humans

Reported effects are dominated by local irritation. Reports of occupational asthma are not of clear significance as effects may not be of immunological origin and may be irritant in nature

DNEL derivation

Insufficient data on repeated exposure are available for the derivation of a DNEL according to REACH guidance. The effects of the substance are predicted to be limited to local toxicity (irritation/corrosion) at the site of contact (respiratory tract); no systemic toxicity is predicted due to the rapid breakdown of the substance in aqueous environments and the subsequent ionic dissociation of the breakdown products. Due to the corrosive nature of the substance, exposure should be minimised by the use of containment and protective equipment.

However OEL values are available in EU Member States and are presented here. Values of 0.2 ppm (1.1 mg/m3) and 0.5 ppm (2.9 mg/m3) are cited in EH40/2005 Workplace Exposure Limits (UK HSE) for 8 -hour TWA and 15 -minute STEL respectively and are considered to be adequately protective for local (respiratory tract) irritation.

General Population - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Acute/short term exposure
DNEL related information

Local effects

Acute/short term exposure
DNEL related information

General Population - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Acute/short term exposure
DNEL related information

General Population - Hazard via oral route

Systemic effects

Acute/short term exposure
DNEL related information

General Population - Hazard for the eyes

Additional information - General Population

The substance is a transported isolated intermediate: no exposure of the general population is predicted and therefore DNEL values are not proposed.