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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

Acutely very toxic for aquatic organisms

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
0.191 mg/L

Additional information

Three studies on the acute toxicity of Triclosan to aquatic invertebrates are available. In a study according to OECD guideline 202 Daphnia magna was exposed to the substance for 48 h in a static test system. Regarding the mobility of D. magna an EC50 of 0.191 mg/l was recorded (mean measured; Ciba-Geigy 1990). A second test on D. magna was set up according to U.S. EPA guideline No. 660/3-75-009. An EC50 of 0.39 mg/l (nominal) was determined after 48 hours of exposure. In a further test the correlation between acute toxicity and pH was tested. Ceriodaphnia dubia was exposed to Triclosan at four different pH (7.0, 7.5, 8.0, 8.5). The mortality of C. dubia was recorded after 48 hours. The LC50 values decreased with increasing pH. Following LC50 values were reported (measured): 0.13 mg/l (pH 7.0), 0.18 mg/l (pH 7.5), 0.24 mg/l (pH 8.0), 0.41 mg/l (pH 8.5) (Ciba-Geigy 1991).

The study by Ciba-Geigy (1990) was selected as key study as this study was performed with the preferred species Daphnia magna (REACH Regulation, Annex VII, 9.1.1) and showed the highest sensitivity at the tested pH range of 8.1 to 8.4. The study by Ciba-Geigy (1991) resulted in a similar EC50 at this pH range but was performed with a different species (Ceriodaphnia dubia). Only testing at a lower pH than the standard medium resulted in a higher sensitivity.

The acute toxicity of the metabolite methyltriclosan was determined according to OECD 202. The 48 -h EC50 was above the water solubility limit under test conditions of 0.18 mg/L (Ciba, 2006).

The following table gives an overview on the available reliable data on acute effects of Triclosan on aquatic invertebrates.

Reference

RL

Species

Exp.

Effect

level

Value

 (µg/L)

Nom./

meas.

Fw/

Mar.

Remark

Triclosan

Ciba-Geigy AG (1990). Proj. No. 262923

1

Daphnia magna

48 h

EC50

191

meas.

fw

mobility

Tamura et al. (2013)

2

Daphnia magna

48 h

EC50

180

meas.

fw

mobility

Harada et al. (2008)

2

Daphnia magna

48 h

EC50

260

nom.

fw

mobility

Peng et al. (2013)

2

Daphnia magna

48 h

LC50

330

nom.

fw

mortality

Wang et al. (2013)

2

Daphnia magna

48 h

LC50

338

nom.

fw

mortality

Procter & Gamble (1990). Rep. No. 38656

2

Daphnia magna

48 h

EC50

390

nom.

fw

mobility

Orvos et al. (2002)

2

Daphnia magna

48 h

EC50

390

nom.

fw

mortality

Ciba-Geigy Corp. (1991). Rep. No. 1011-0691-6278-132

2

Ceriodaphnia sp.

48 h

LC50

130

meas.

fw

mortality, pH 7.0

Ciba-Geigy Corp. (1991). Rep. No. 1011-0691-6278-132

2

Ceriodaphnia sp.

48 h

LC50

180

meas.

fw

mortality, pH 7.5

Ciba-Geigy Corp. (1991). Rep. No. 1011-0691-6278-132

2

Ceriodaphnia sp.

48 h

LC50

240

meas.

fw

mortality, pH 8.0

Ciba-Geigy Corp. (1991). Rep. No. 1011-0691-6278-132

2

Ceriodaphnia sp.

48 h

LC50

410

meas.

fw

mortality, pH 8.5

Wang et al. (2013)

2

Chironomus plumosus

96 h

LC50

2890

nom.

fw

mortality

Wang et al. (2013)

2

Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri

96 h

LC50

2046

nom.

fw

mortality

Wang et al. (2013)

2

Neocaridina denticulata sinensis

96 h

LC50

772

nom.

fw

mortality

De Lorenzo et al. (2008)

2

Palaemonetes pugio

96 h

LC50

154

nom.

Mar.

shrimp larvae

Kim et al. (2009)

2

Thamnocephalus platyurus

24 h

EC50

470

nom.

Mar.

mobility

Anselmo et al. (2011)

2

Psammechinus miliaris

72 h

EC50

78-89

nom.

Mar.

morphology of larvae

Hwang et al. (2014)

2

Strongylocentrotus nudus

72 h

EC50

286

nom.

Mar.

embryonic development

Cortez et al. (2012)

2

Perna perna

48 h

IC50

135

nom.

Mar.

embryo-larval development

Methyltriclosan

Ciba Specialty Chem. (2006). Rep. No.A34931

1

Daphnia magna

48 h

EC50

> 180

nom.

fw

mobility; EC50 above the solubility limit

Exp.: exposure duration; Fw.: freshwater; Mar.: marine water; Meas.: measured; Nom.: nominal; RL: Reliability