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Physical & Chemical properties

Flammability

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
flammable liquids: obsolete as covered by section 'Flash point'
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
August 2019
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2019
Report Date:
2019

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: ASTM E681
Deviations:
no
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The test apparatus and procedure were according to ASTM E681-2009 and Appendix B1 to ASHRAE Standard 34-2013. The test vessel was a 12-liter spherical grass flask. The ignition source was a spark from a transformer secondary rated at 15,000V/30mA with 0.4 second spark duration. The electrodes were 1mm, L-shaped tungsten wire with 0.25 inches gap. The ignition source was placed at a height of 1/3 the diameter of the flask from the bottom of the flask. Tests were run at 60°C, with humidity of the air adjusted to 50±1% at 23°C. The absolute humidity of the air used for mixing was 0.0088 grams of water vapor per gram of dry air at 23°C. A stirrer was installed in the flask for vapor mixing. Refrigerant/air mixtures were prepared using partial pressures using a pressure transducer. The tolerance of the refrigerant/air concentration was within 0.1% by volume. Tests were conducted in increments of 1.0vol% or less of the refrigerant/air concentration.
Flame propagation was determined as described in Appendix B1, which is the 90 degree fan criterion. After each test, air was introduced to purge the residual refrigerant vapors, followed by evacuation to below one torr. Figure 1 is a schematic of the basic test vessel.
Flask temperatures were measured and controlled within ±3°C of goal temperatures.
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
liquid

Results and discussion

Any other information on results incl. tables

Experimental Results

Our internal testing on HCFO-1233yd(Z) flammability has shown, by strict adherence to ASHRAE 34, that HCFO-1233yd(Z) is flammable at 60°C in the range from 7 to 14 % by volume. Table 1 gives the HCFO-1233yd(Z) flammability testing results at 60°C using 50% RH air at 23°C.

Refrigerant

vol %

Air

vol %

Angle

degree

Flammable?

(Y/N)

1.0

99.0

0

N

2.0

98.0

0

N

3.0

97.0

0

N

4.0

96.0

0

N

5.0

95.0

0

N

6.0

94.0

60

N

7.0

93.0

120

Y

12.0

88.0

150

Y

13.0

87.0

120

Y

14.0

86.0

100

Y

15.0

85.0

30

N

16.0

84.0

0

N

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
The test material may form flammable air/vapour mixtures whilst being used, and therefore it is assigned the risk phrase “EUH018: In use may form flammable/explosive vapour-air mixture”. The substance is not classified as flammable.
Executive summary:

Flammability of HCFO 1233yd(Z) was determined experimentally, according to ASTM E681-2009 and Appendix B1 to ASHRAE Standard 34-2013. The method utilises changing concentrations to determine flammability. The test results show, by strict adherence to ASHRAE 34, that HCFO-1233yd(Z) is flammable at 60°C in the range from 7 to 14 % by volume. Table 1 gives the HCFO-1233yd(Z) flammability testing results at 60°C using 50% RH air at 23°C.

HCFO 1233yd(Z) may form flammable air/vapour mixtures whilst being used, and therefore it is assigned the risk phrase “EUH018: In use may form flammable/explosive vapour-air mixture”. The substance is not classified as flammable.