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EC number: 828-365-9
CAS number: 113573-69-6
The solubility of enzymes is generally between 0.5 and 250 g/L in tap
water (moderate salinity at pH 7 or just below). Increasing pH generally
leads to higher solubility.
The solubility of xanthan lyases in purified water at pH 7 is between
0.5 and 250 g/L.
The degree of solubility at a given pH is depending on several factors,
e.g. temperature, the amino acid sequence and structure of the enzyme
and other components in the system such as salts. The amino acid
sequence and structure affect the polarity, including the isoelectric
point (pI) of the enzyme, which is an important factor for solubility.
Thus, the difference in solubility is a reflection of the variation in
the amino acid sequence. In addition, post translational modifications
influence solubility, where the most important is glycosylation, which
typically increases the solubility. The influence of pH and salt
concentration on protein stability has been investigated (Carbannaux et
al., 1995; Green, 1933; Guilloteau et al., 1992; Hofmeister, 1888). The
effects of anions and cations on protein solubility in general are
described by the Hofmeister series (Hofmeister, 1888). All indicate that
the solubility of proteins like enzymes is dependent on the conditions
in a given environment.
Enzymes generally have the lowest solubility when the pH is close to pI
(+/- 1 pH unit) and the solubility increases when pH is shifting away
from pI, as long as the pH is not denaturing the enzyme. The pI of
xanthan lyase ranges from 3.7 to 7.9 (http://www.brenda-enzymes.info/).
Studies on different enzymes covering alpha-amylases (Faber et al.,
2007) and proteases (HERA, 2007)* show high solubility (60 -100 g/L) at
pH between 6 to 8.
The conclusion is that the water solubility differs between different
enzymes within the same class, due to difference in amino acid sequence
and presence of post translational modifications. Water solubility is
also highly dependent on the aqueous environment, i.e. pH, salts
present, temperature and stabilizing agents, and it is thus not possible
to give one water solubility value for all industrial produced enzymes
but only a range. Industrial enzymes are produced in submerged
fermentation followed by downstream purification. The final product is a
mixture of the enzyme, other constituents from the fermentation and
stabilizing agents that are added in the downstream processing. In
general, solubility data are based either on finished products or
enzymes purified in buffer and salts and not in purified water alone.
Carbonnaux C, Riès-Kautt M, Ducruix A. (1995). Protein Science,
Green AA. (1932). Physical Chemistry of Proteins. 10:47-66.
Guilloteau J P, Riès-Kautt M, Ducruix A. (1992). Variation of lysozyme
solubility as a function of temperature in the presence of organic and
inorganic salts. J. Crystal Growth, 122(1 -4):223-230.
Hofmeister F. (1888); Archiv für experimentelle Pathologie und
Pharmakologie, 24, 247 -260.
Faber C, Hobley TJ, Mollerup J, Thomas ORT and Kaasgaard SG. (2007).
Study of the Solubility of a Modified Bacillus licheniformis α-Amylase
around the Isoelectric Point. J. Chem. Eng. Data, 52:707-713
HERA (Human & Environmental Risk Assessment) on ingredients of household
cleaning products, (2007); Subtilisins (Protease) CAS No: 9014-01-1,
1395-21-7, 9073-77-2, 9001-92-7, 79986-26-8, 95979-76-3, 68909-17-1. *NOTE:
Data published in HERA 2007 as “> 1 kg/L”, but has to be corrected to “>
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