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EC number: 253-149-0
CAS number: 36653-82-4
Predicted to be non-toxic at the limit of solubility
Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates: Key: 48 h EC50
>0.024 mg/l (non-toxic at the limit of solubility) calculated by a
No measured data are available for short-term toxicity to aquatic
This endpoint has been calculated based on a validated reliable
QSAR method. Hexadecan-1-ol has been predicted to be non toxic at the
limit of solubility, therefore the EC50 is >0.024 mg/L.
Data across the alcohols category group show that alcohols with
a carbon chain length greater than C14 are expected to be non-toxic at
the solubility limit during short-term tests.
A 48 hour EC50 has been calculated from a 21-d Daphnia
reproduction test with pentadecan-1-ol (C15, CAS 629-76-5). This
determines a value of 0.063 mg/l for effects of C15 on mobility of Daphnia
magna, and supports the conclusion that hexadecan-1-ol (C16) is
non-toxic at the limit of solubility.
Discussion of trends in the Category of C6-24 linear and
essentially-linear aliphatic alcohols:
The data presented in the table below show the toxicity of the
linear LCAAs to increase from an EC50 of 200 mg/L for C6 to
0.77 mg/L for C12. Effects have also been observed in tests with C13
and C14 LCAAs but at concentrations that exceeded the solubility of
the alcohols. Although not explicitly identified in the test reports,
physical effects (rather than true toxicity) cannot therefore be
excluded from the interpretation of the results for these two LCAAs.
In the Unilever (1994) study with C14 the authors have recorded that
the test substance adhered to the daphnids at concentrations higher
than the water solubility of 1-tetradecanol. This indicates that
physical fouling is likely to have caused the effects seen at the EC50 value
of 4 mg/L.
The lowest reliable short-term EC/LC50 values
for invertebrates exposed to linear LCAAs are presented in the
Key studies for invertebrate short-term toxicity studies on single
carbon chain length linear LCAAs.
Water solubility (mg/L)
5900 at 20°C
24 h EC50
Bringmann and Kuhn, 1982
1300 at 20°C
550 at 25°C
130 at 20°C
Nitocra spinipes (brackish)
96 h EC50
Bengtsson, Renberg, and Tarkpea, 1984
40 mg/L at 20°C
N. spinipes (brackish)
Decene, hydroformylation products
Supporting.hydroformylation product (=C11)
48 h LC50
Burgess and Forbis, 1983b
8.0 at 20°C
96 h LC50
1.9 at 20°C
48 h EC50
Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 1997
0.38 at 20°C
EC50 (duration unknown)
0.19 at 25°C
1>LoS: LC50 observed was
greater than the limit of solubility (n) based on nominal
concentrations, (m) based on measured concentrations.
SUPPORTING denotes that the substance is not for registration
but the data are used to support the category
The data presented in the table below show the multi-constituent
substances containing LCAAs with carbon numbers in the ranges of C7-9
to C12-15 to exert short-term toxicity at concentrations of between
0.23 and 30 mg/L. At these concentrations it is likely that all
constituents will have been fully dissolved. The short-term EC50 of
the C14-15 LCAAs to aquatic invertebrate was determined to be above
the limit of solubility of the substance.
For the C12-14 and C12-18 multi-constituent substances there was
evidence of toxic effects in tests conducted on test media prepared as
water-accommodated fractions at loading rates that exceeded the
solubility of some constituents. For the C16-18 substance there was
evidence of effects in test media that could have contained
undissolved test material. The possibility of physical effects (rather
than true toxicity) contributing to the observed effects were not
discussed in the test report but cannot be excluded.
The lowest reliable short-term EC/LC50 values
for invertebrates exposed to multi-constituent LCAAs are presented in
the following table.
Invertebrate short-term toxicity studies on mixed carbon chain length
(multi-constituent) LCAAs (species are freshwater unless noted
510 mg/L at a loading rate of 1000 mg/L (estimated)
Fraunhofer Institute, 2005e
Mixture of 68527-05-9 and 70955-11-2-
Mixture of hexane and octene hydroformylation products
i.e. alcohols, C7-9SUPPORTING
Burgess and Forbis, 1983c
Nonanol, branched and linear
Read-across from C9
Alcohols, C9-11- branched and linear
Also valid for Alcohols, C9-11 CAS 66455-17-2
44 at a loading rate of 1000 mg/L. (estimated)
Shell Research Limited, 1983
Also valid for Alcohols, C9-11 CAS 66455-17-2
Crangon crangon (marine)
Huntingdon Life Sciences Ltd. 1991a.
Alcohols, C9-11 (odd numbered), branched and linear
26.04 at 20°C
48 h LD50
Mixture of 68516-18-7, 68527-05-9 and 70955-11-2-
Mixture of octane and decene hydroformylation products
Burgess and Forbis, 1983d
Decanol, branched and linear
Read-across from C10
26.17 at 20°C
Undecanol, branched and linear
Reaction mass of 2-methyldecan-1-ol and 2-propyloctan-1-ol and 2-ethylnonan-1-ol and 2-butylheptan-1-ol
Read-across from C11
6.3 at 25°C
Alcohols, C12-13-branched and linear
2.4 at 25oC
OECD 202 WAF
48 h EL50
C. crangon (marine)
>10 (n) (>LoS)
Huntingdon Life Sciences Ltd. 1991b.
2.9-3.1 at 20°C
Alcohols, C 12-14
4.6 predicted at 1000 mg/L loading rate
EU 92/69/EWG WAF
63 (n) (>LoS)
Alcohols, C12-15-branched and linear
0.80 at 20°C
Alcohols, C 12-18
1.7 predicted at 100 mg/L loading rate
40 (n) (>LoS)
Alcohols, C 16-18 and 18 Unsaturated
0.044 predicted at 1000 mg/L loading rate
EU Guideline 92/69/EWG
70 (n) (>LoS)
Henkel KGaA. 1995.
1Compositional Types are described in
section 1.4.7 of the category report.
2WAF denotes test medium was a
was greater than the limit of solubility of at least some constituents
of the substance. (n) based
on nominal concentrations, (m) based on measured concentrations.
SUPPORTING denotes that the substance is not for registration but
the data are used to support the category
n/a denotes not applicable
The data for nonanol, branched and linear, decanol branched and
linear, decanol branched and undecanol branched and reaction mass of
2-methyldecan-1-ol and 2-propyloctan-1-ol and 2-ethylnonan-1-ol and
2-butylheptan-1-ol alcohols have been read-across from their linear
LCAAs counterparts (C9, C10 and C11) since they are essentially linear
The measured data do not permit a definite toxicity cut-off to be
identified for the single carbon number LCAAs or the multi-constituent
substances. This is because the potential for physical effects to
contribute to the results obtained for the C13 and 14 single carbon
number alcohols, and the multi-constituent substances containing
constituents with carbon numbers that are all >C12, cannot be excluded.
However, it is reasonable to conclude from the data that are presented
that it is unlikely that linear LCAAs with carbon numbers >C13 and
multi-constituent LCAAs with carbon numbers all >C13 would be toxic.
Bengtsson, B., Renberg, L., and Tarkpea, M. (1984). Molecular
structure and aquatic toxicity-An example with C1-C13 aliphatic
alcohols. Chemosphere 13(5/6):613-622.
Bringmann, V. and Kuhn, R.1982. Results of toxic action of water
pollutants on Daphnia magna Straus tested by an improved standardized
procedure. Z. Wasser Abwasser Forsch. 15(1):1-6.
Burgess, D. and Forbis, A.D. 1983b. Acute toxicity of oxo alcohol
1100 to Daphnia magna. Static acute bioassay report 30851.
Burgess, D. and Forbis, A.D. 1983d. Acute toxicity of oxo alcohol
7911 to Daphnia magna. Static acute bioassay report 30848.
Burgess, D. and Forbis, A.D. 1983c. Acute toxicity of oxo alcohol
7900 to Daphnia magna. Static acute bioassay report 30845.
Fraunhofer Institute, 2005a, Daphnia, acute
immobilization, Linevol 79. Study SDA-04/4-20, Fraunhofer Institute.
Henkel, 1998a. Henkel Report No. R9800103.
Henkel,1998b. Henkel KGaA Report No. R9800104.
Henkel KGaA., 1995. Report No. 9400262. May 1995.
Huntingdon Life Sciences Ltd.(HLS).1991a. Report No. SLL
Huntingdon Life Sciences Ltd.(HLS).1991b. Report No. SLL
Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 1997. Examination of
1-Dodecanol in an acute immobilization test in Daphnia magna. LPT Report
Shell, 2000a. Shell. RTS Report No. CT.00.47050.
Shell, 2001a. Shell. RTS Report No. OG.01.49011.
Shell Research Limited, 1983. Toxicity tests with Daphnia magna:
Acute toxicity of eight test materials to a newly-introduced strain of
D. magna in reconstituted fresh water. Shell Research Limited,
Sittingbourne Research Centre. SBGR.83.100.
TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute. 2000b. Static acute
toxicity test with compound 33A abd the crustacean species Daphnia
magna. TNO report V98.1320.
1995. Acute toxicity of 1-tetradecanol to Daphnia magna. Unilever. Study
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